Biology Honors Ch7

45 terms by McAwesome4

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Osmosis

involves water moving across the plasma membrane to the side with greater solute concentration

Exocytosis

occurs when the plasma membrane surrounds a large substance inside the cell and moves it outside the cell

Facilitated diffusion

moves small molecules across the plasma membrane using transport proteins

dynamic equilibrium

the condition that results when diffusion continues until the concentrations are the same in all areas

active transprt

occurs when substances move against the concentration gradient; requires energy and the aid of carrier proteins

endocytosis

occurs when the plasma membrane surrounds a large substance outside the cell and moves it inside the cell

transport proteins

moves substances through the plasma membrane

lipids

make up most of the molecules in the plasma membrane

phospholipid

a molecule that has a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate-containing compound

fluid mosaic model

the phospholipid "sea" in which embedded substances float

phospholipid bilayer

two layers of phospholipids arranged tail-to-tail

Microtubules

are long, hollow protein cylinders that form a rigid skeleton for the cell

Nucleus

contains most of the cells DNA

the Nucleolus

is the structure that produces Ribosomes

Golgi Aparatus

a stack of membranes that packages proteins into sacs called vesicles

cytoplasm

the semi fluid internal environment of the cell

Compound light microscope

uses a series of lenses to magnify an image

Both

organisms that break down molecules to generate energy
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes

organisms that have cells lacking internal membrane-bound organelles Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes

organisms whose cells do not have a nuclei

Eularyotes

organisms that are either unicellular or multicellular
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes

prokaryotes

organisms that are generally unicellular
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes

Eukaryotes

organisms that have cells containing organelles
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes

Both

Organisms that have plasma membranes
Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes

Homeostasis

the process of maintaining balance inside a cell

Plasma Membrane

a boundary between a cell and its environment

Selective Permeability

the feature of the plasma membrane that keeps some substances out

Plasma Membrane

separates prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells from the watery environment in which they exist

selective permeability

the quality of a plasma membrane that allows oxygen and glucose to move in

Homeostasis

Mainained by the plasma membrane

Electron Microscopes

uses magnets to direct a beam of electrons at an image

TEM Transmission electron microscope

only works if the specimen thats being magnified is dead, sliced very thin, and stained with heavy metals.

SEM Scanning Electron Microscope

microscope that can produce a 3-D image

Prokaryotes

simple structure, contains a plasma membrane, does not contain membrane-bound organelles

Eukaryotes

complex structure, contains a plasma membrane, contains membrane-bound organelles

Robert Hooke

Scientist who first discovered the cell in the 1600's, gave the cell its name

Schwann

scientist who reported that all animals are composed of cells

Schleden

Scientist who concluded that all plants are composed of cells

diffusion

movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an are of lower concentrstion. examples perfume in a room, a fart

Temperature, pressure, concentration

What are the three things that effect the rate of diffusion

plants cells

what organisms have cell walls

a phospholipid bilayer

what is the plasma membrane composed of

Proteins

transmit signals inside the cell, act as a support structure, provide pathways for substances to enter and leave a cell

Fluid Mosaic Model

the phospholipid bilaiter allows other molecules to " float" in the membrane

plasma membrane

thin, flexible, boundary surrounding and protecting a cell

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