a stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time
any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms
colonization of barren land by pioneer organisms
sequence of changes that take place after a community is disrupted by natural disasters or human actions
orderly, natural changes, and species replacements that take place in communities of an ecosystem over time
the ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental factors
deep water that never receives sunlight
group of ecosystems with the same climax communities
arid region with sparse to almost nonexistent plant life; the driest biome
coastal body of water, partially surrounded by land, in which freshwater and salt water mix
biome composed of large communities covered with rich soil, grasses, and similar small plants
portion of the shoreline that lies between high tide and low tide lines
portion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate
small organisms that drift and float in the waters of the photic zone; includes both autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms, their eggs and the juvenile stages of many marine animals
biome just south of the tundra; characterized by a boreal or northern coniferous forest composed of larch, fir, hemlock and spruce trees and acidic, mineral-poor topsoils
temperate / deciduous forest
biome composed of forests of broad-leaved hardwood trees that lose their foliage annually
tropical rain forest
biome near the equator with warm temperatures, wet weather, and lush plant growth
biome that surrounds the north and south poles; treeless land with long summer days and short periods of winter sunlight
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