This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
fundamental individual right protected by law and expressed as immunity from unwarranted governmental interference
a law that advocates the administration of justice according to established rules and principles
the First Amendment guarantee that the government will not create and support an official state church
nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has accorded some symbolic speech protection under the first amendment.
a warrant authorizing law enforcement officials to search for objects or people involved in the commission of a crime and to produce them in court
right to grand jury, indictment, no double jeopardy, freedom from self-incrimination, due process of law
(criminal law) a negotiation in which the defendant agrees to enter a plea of guilty to a lesser charge and the prosecutor agrees to drop a more serious charge
an illegal action inciting resistance to lawful authority and tending to cause the disruption or overthrow of the government
Rights possessed by persons who are arrested by the police. (Remain silent, Attorney, etc.)
A clause that is part of the 14th Amendment stating that "no state shall...deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." Protected an individual from not only federal laws, but also at the state level.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Law that invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; 1965
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government
De facto segregation
segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law
right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equ
In Reynolds v. US (1879), the Supreme Court denied this right to Reynolds because his religion's practice of polygamy violated federal law.
a tort consisting of false and malicious publication printed for the purpose of defaming a living person
communication in the form of advertising. It can be restricted more than many other types of speech but has been receiving increased protection from the Supreme Court.
a rule that provides that otherwise admissible evidence cannot be used in a criminal trial if it was the result of illegal police conduct
the situation occurring when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. The Fifth Amendment forbids it.
Right to Counsel
Individual right found in the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution that requires criminal defendants to have access to legal representation.
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
the issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
Separate but equal
Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.
Barron v. Baltimore
court case deciding that the Bill of Rights cannot be applied to state governments
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Court case deciding that the law must be clearly secular, not prohibiting or inhibiting religion, and there should be no excessive entanglement
Engel v. Vitale
Court case banning formal prayer in schools, goverment wouldn't make any religion the 'official' religion.
School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schempp
A 1963 Supreme Court decision holding that a Pennsylvania law requiring Bible reading in schools violated the establishment clause of the First Amendment.
Near v. Minnesota
the 1931 Supreme Court decision holding that the first amendment protects newspapers from prior restraint.
Schenck v. United States
Court case that limited freedom of speech, upheld the Espionage Act, and held that under certain circumstances, the Supreme Court can limit free speech
Zurcher v. Stanford Daily
(freedom of press case) 1978; a proper search warrant could be applied to a newspaper (and other things) without violating the rights to freedom of the press
Roth v. United States
a 1957 Supreme Court decision ruling that obscenity is not within the area of constitutionally protected speech or press.
Miller v. California
Court case that determined the obscenity clause to related to works that lack literary, artisitic, political or scientific value. (LAPS test)
New York Times v. Sullivan
Court case concerning libel of public officials/figures; decided that public officials/figures have less privacy rights.
Miami Herald Publishing Company v. Tornillo
Court case stating that the state could not force newspaper to print replies from candidates it had criticized; limited the government's power to restrict print media
NAACP v. Alabama
protected right to assemble peacefully. naacp did not have to reveal its membership
Mapp v. Ohio
Court case that established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states (evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court)
Gideon v. Wainwright
Court case that said that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
McCleskey v. Kemp
1987; upheld the consitutionality of the death penalty against charges, that it violated the 14th Amendment because minority defendants were more likely to receive the death penalty than were White defendants.
Roe v. Wade
established national abortion guidelines; trimester guidelines; no state interference in 1st; state may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd; state may regulate to protect health or unborn child in 3rd. inferred from right of privacy established in griswald v. connecticut
Dred Scott v. Sandford
denied citizenship to enslaved African Americans and denied right to sue in federal court. Invalidated Missouri Compromise (no slaves north of 36° 30')
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court case that ruled that segregation in public places/facilities was legal as long as the facilites were equal
Brown v. Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place
Korematsu v. United States
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
1978 state university couldn't admit less qualified individuals solely based on race; no quotas
Adarand Constructors v. Pena
A 1995 Supreme Court decision holding quotas and ethnicity percentage requirement for government jobs are unconsitutional