Pronator Quadratus O, I, A
O: medial anterior surface of distal ulna, I: lateral anterior surface of distal radius, A: Pronate the forearm
Pronator Teres O, I, A
O:medial epicondyle of the humerus, common flexor tendon and coronoid process of the ulna, I:middle of the lateral surface of radius. A: pronate forearm, assist to flex the elbow
Supinator O, I, A
O:radial collateral ligament, annular ligament and supinator crest of the ulna (lateral epicondyle). I; lateral proximal radial shaft. A: supinates forearm.
Palmaris longus O, I, A
O:common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle, I:flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis, A:tense the palmar fascia, flex wrist, flex elbow.
extensor digitorum communis
O Lateral epicondyle of humerus, I: second to fifth digits, A:extends the hand, wrist and fingers.
1)pronator teres, 2)supinator, 3)extensor digitorum communis, 4)3 flexors (flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus)
pronator teres location
Distal tip of equilateral triangle drawn from Ht 3 and Pc 3, needle perpendicular .5-1 inch
With forearm pronated, it is deep to LI 9 (or, 1.5 cun distal to Lu 5 and .5 towards radial side)
Extensor digitorum communis location
Tip of equilateral triangle drawn fro LI 8 and LI 9, on the ulnar side.
3 Flexors (carpi ulnaris, radialis, longus)
On a line drawn from the medial epicondyle of the humerus to Ht 7, Pc 7, and Lu 9, on the proximal 1/3rd between these points. Ulnaris is to Ht 7, radialis is to Pc 7 and P. longus is to Lu 9)
1) pronator quadratus (Pc 6 - use for true carpal tunnel in addition to regular protocol), 2) thread both sides of insertion of wrist flexors (medial) or extensors (lateral)-->to tx epicondylitis.
Pronator teres syndrome
Muscle tension can cut off median nerve and mimic carpal tunnel
How to access radial nerve
via li 9
how to access median nerve
via PC 3
how to access ulnar nerve
What prevents varus in elbow
lateral collateral ligament
what prevents valgus in elbow
medial collateral ligament
ring in which radius rotates