AP US History Flashcards

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Terms from AP US History and these are some online flashcards to study online time to time, to keep your memory fresh.

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

Mercantilism

Transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services), an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.

Half Way Covenant

Established in response to the decline in Puritans; offered non-Puritans membership.

Enlightenment

A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions, a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.

Deism

The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.

Republic

A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them.

The First Great Awakening

A revival of religious feeling and belief in the American colonies that began in the 1730s.

Separation of Powers

Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law.

Check and Balances

The branch government exercise check or controis., the ability of each branch of govrnment to execise check.

The Iroquois Confederacy

A powerful alliance of Indian tribes that was the only one to remain neutral during the French and Indian War (Seven years' war). The tribe had previously been subject of a peace treaty with the British and were noted as one of three powers of North America. After the Seven Years' War the alliance with the Iroquois and the British diminished and they began contesting each other for power over the Ohio Valey.

The Virginia Company

Managed merchant-driven settlement of Virginia. A joint stock company. The primary goal was to make a profit. Religious motivation was much less important than in the founding of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts.

Bacon's Rebellion

A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land.

The Puritans

They were a group of religious reformists who wanted to "purify" the Anglican Church. Their ideas started with John Calvin in the 16th century and they first began to leave England in 1608. Later voyages came in 1620 with the Pilgrims and in 1629, which was the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

The Quakers

Protestant reformers. Believed that all people - men and woman were equal . they spoke out agents all war and refused to serve in the army.

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

Republic

A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them.

The French and Indian War

French wanted to claim land but failed when Washington sent his troupes in to defeat them.

The Proclamation of 1763

1763; protects the Native lands in the Ohio Valley (settlers are not allowed to buy land there)., This act was the result of Pontiac's attack on English Frontiersmen who were crossing the mountains into Indian territory. The British Govt. passed this act to forbid settlers from advancing beyond the mountains that divided the Atlantic Coast from the interior of North America. This agreement was supported by many Indian tribes but it was largely ineffective, soon White settlers were pushing across the boundary and it was relocated in a 1768 agreement, that was also eventually replaced.

Stamp Act

An act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents.

The Coercive Acts

Used to describe a series of laws passed by the British parliament. These laws created much anger and protest within the colonies. Some of the acts said that Massachusetts would be used as an example due to the Boston Tea Party while others dealt with the stamp act.

Common Sense

A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain.

The Declaration of Independence

An act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were "Free and Independent States" and that "all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved."

The Treaty of Paris

Britain recognizes independence of the U.S.; boundaries of the new nation are established; American ships are given unlimited access; The government of the U.S. agreed it would not interfere with British creditors and merchants seeking to collect debts; the U.S. would compensate loyalists whose property had been confiscated.

The Articles of Confederation

The first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. The thirteen states were formally thirteen independent countries ("states") until ratification of the Articles, proposed in 1777, was completed in 1781; at that point the "United States of America" legally came into existence, but, as stipulated in the Articles (and in the Constitution of the United States that succeeded them), the states retained full sovereignty and all functions of sovereignty not specifically deputed to the government of the federation.

Shay's Rebellion

This conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes.

The Federalist Papers

Series of newspaper articles written by John Hay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists.

Anti-Federalists

They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.

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