epic poem about kidnapping of a Greek princess, Helen of Troy, by a Trojan prince, Paris - started a 10-year war between the Greeks and the Trojans
describes the journey of one of the victorious Greek generals who spends the next 10 years trying to get home
was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and Sparta that lasted 27 years
________had the strong army power, but __________ had the strong army.
____________ laid seige to Athens, and the great Plague struck ___________during the war
Defeated Athens in the Pelopennesian War, with help from the Persian
would eventually rule over the Greek city-states
most famous play by the Greeks that poked fun at Socrates
famous play by Sophocles that was a "perfect example of tragedy"
plays written by the Greeks that mocked people and ideas
plays written by Greeks in which the main characters struggle against fate
focus on pleasure, eat, drink & be merry - founded by Epicurus
founded by Zeno; believe reason directed the world; thought you should be indifferent to pain and pleasure; believed in the brotherhood of man
sought only virtue; rejected pain and pleasure
most famous figure of Cynicism
means city-state in Greece
characters in Greek plays that believed they had the same knowledge or abilities of the gods; this trait usually doomed a character
most famous work by Plato and was about an ideal government run by a trained class of philosopher kings
a military formation used by Phillip of Macedon with 16 rows of tightly spaced soldiers with lances
notion that the Earth revolves around the Sun first proposed in the 3rd century BC by Aristarchus of Samos; he was alone in his theory
paintings on wet plaster famous in early Greece
temple for the goddess Athena; best example of Greek architecture
wealthy boys in ancient Athens were taught by ________________
Citizens of Sparta did not travel and foreigners were not welcome; this fear is known as ____________.
were a category of teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric for the purpose of teaching excellence, or virtue — predominately to young statesmen and nobility
means "like the Greeks"
a word meaning "expressing much in few words"; the original meaning referred to the people of Sparta
originally a sculpter, became a teacher; would not call himself a philosopher because he considered them deceitful
believed in people thinking for themselves and using reason and logic to discover absolute truth
believed in relative truth, not absolute truth
famous saying of Socrates
"To know thyself"
was accused of atheistism and corrupting the youth; was found guilty at his trial and condemned to death or exile
poison drink Socrates chose for his death
student of Socrates; also recorded the thoughts of Socrates
believed you could not know truth in real world, but in the world of ideas, grasped only by the mind
student of Plato, a scientist and philosopher
believed in finding truth in Material World
classified plants and animals and wrote logic about politics
was considered an authority on life by the Catholic church and was called "the master"
Alexander the Great (1)
tutored by Aristotle; helped his father conquer the Greeks and was consider a very brave, skilled general
Alexander the Great (2)
in 334 BC invaded Persian; by 331 BC had conquered Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and Mesopotamia
Alexander the Great (3)
married a Persian princess, Roxana, to show cultural unity
father of Alexander the Great and Greek king of Macedonia
had a strong army of 10,000 regular paid men; had infintry (foot soldiers) and calvary (mounted soldiers)
unified his own people and then conquered the Greek city-states by 338 BC
was the last person to rule Egypt as an Egyptian pharaoh - after her death Egypt became a Roman province.
a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt, and was a descendant of one of Alexander the Great's generals who had seized control over Egypt after Alexander's death
was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great who got Egypt
is the goddess of war, civilization, wisdom, strength, strategy, crafts, justice and skill in Greek mythology
is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. Her Roman equivalent is the goddess Venus.
greatest Greek comedic playright
the most-feted playwright in the dramatic competitions of the city-state of Athens that took place during the religious festivals; The most famous of his tragedies are those concerning Oedipus and Antigone:
son of Cyrus; wanted to punish Athens, so sent a massive Army to Greece in 490 BC
fought a major battle outside Athens at Marathon; the outnumbered Athenian army of citizen solders defeated the much larger (mostly salve) army of Persia
Emperor of Persia who fought in two memorable battles - The Battle of Thermopolae and the naval battle of Salamis
Battle of Salamis
considered one of the most significant naval confrontations in the history of the world.
considered super power of Greece
was a prominent and influential statesman, orator, and general of Athens during the city's Golden Age—specifically, the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars
Age of Pericles
The Golden Age is the term used to denote the historical period in Classical Greece lasting roughly from the end of the Persian Wars in 448 BCE to either the death of Pericles 429 BCE or the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE
was an Athenian sculptor who worked almost exclusively in bronze and though he made some statues of gods and heroes, his fame rested principally upon his representations of athletes
was the god of the sea, storms, and, as "Earth-Shaker," of earthquakes in Greek mythology
was an ancient Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Athens), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine
credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused naturally and not as a result of superstition and Gods
calculated the circumference of the Earth to within 50 miles; no one believed him but believed Ptolemy who thought the world was smaller
Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "Father of Geometry"; was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy; His Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century
was a Greek sculptor, painter and architect, who lived in the 5th century BC, and is commonly regarded as one of the greatest of all sculptors of Classical Greece; his Statue of Zeus at Olympia was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; also designed the statues of the goddess Athena on the Athenian Acropolis, namely the Athena Parthenos inside the Parthenon and the Athena Promachos, a colossal bronze statue of Athena which stood between it and the Propylaea, a monumental gateway that served as the entrance to the Acropolis in Athens
legendary ancient Greek blind poet, the author of the epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey
philosophy of stoics was founded by this man; believed in a reason directed world; he thought you should be indifferent to pain and pleasure
Spread Buddhism throughout the lands he conquered.
wife of Zeus and protector of women
location of early Greece which also included many islands
Greek civilization began on the island of ___________.
Alexander the Great conquered this area by 331 BC
is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Asia Minor; influenced alot of Greek trade
a mountain pass in northern Greece; King Leonidas confronted Xerxes at this pass
Battle of Thermopylae
300 Spartans and 6,000 allies met 200,000 Persians
major battle was fought in this city outside Athens; outnumbered Athenian army of citizen soldiers defeated the much larger army of Persia
prosperous city with 1MM people and a library of 750,000 papyrus scrolls
Alexander the Great marched his army all the way to this location where after 10 years they rebelled
capital city on the Island of Crete
doric, iconic, corinthian
three styles of Greek columns
The ______is the oldest and simplest Greek style--its found on the Parthenon in Athens. This column features fluted sides, a smooth rounded top, or capital, and no separate base.
identified by the scroll-shaped ornaments at the capital, which resemble a ram's horns; rests on a rounded base.
the latest of the three Greek styles and show the influence of Egyptian columns in their capitals, which are shaped like inverted bells. Capitals are also decorated with olive, laurel, or acanthus leaves; rest on a base similar to that of the Ionic style