Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior and mental processes due to experience.
What is learning?
Learning that occurs when a previously neutral stimulus is paired (associated) with an unconditioned stimulus to cause a conditioned response.
Stimulus that causes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.
Unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning.
Stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest.
Previously neutral stimulus, that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus , now causes a conditioned response.
Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous repeated pairs with an unconditioned stimulus
Explains behavior as a result of observable stimuli (in the environment) and observable responses (behavioral actions)
Conditioned Emotional Response
Classically conditioned emotional response to a previously neutral stimulus (NS)
Basic classical conditioning when a neutral stimulus is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that the NS comes to elicit a conditioned response.
NS presented before UCS and remains until UCR begins, Example: Tone presented before food, this is the most effective
NS presented at the same time as UCS, Example:Tone and food presented simultaneously
NS presented and then taken away, or ends before UCS and presented, Example: tone sounds, but food only presented once the sound stops
UCS presented before NS, Example: Food presented before the tone, this is the least effective
Stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimuli elicit a conditioned response
This process of learning responses to a specific stimulus , but not to other similar stimuli; Only the conditioned stimulus causes the conditioned response
Repeatedly presenting the CS without the UCS, which gradually weakens the CR.
The reappearance of a condtioned response after extinction.
Neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through repeated pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus
Learning through the consequences of voluntary behavior; also known as instructural or Skimerian conditioning
Strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur
Weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
Law of effect
Thorndike's rule that the probabilty of an action being repeated is strengthened when it is followed by a pleasant or satisfying consequence.
Stimuli that increase the probability of a response because they satisfy an unlearned, biological need such as food, water, and sex.
Stimuli that increase the probability of a response because of their learned value such as money and material possessions.
Adding or presenting a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur.
Taking away or removing a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur.
Using a naturally occuring high-frequency response to reinforce and increase low-frequency responses.
Every correct response is reinforced.
Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement
Some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced.
Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses; the ratio (number or amount) is fixed.
Reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the ratio varies.
Reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the interval (time varies)
Reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed; the interval is fixed.
Reinforcement delivered for successive approximations of the desired response.
Adding or presenting a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur.
Taking away or removing a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur.
Cue signaling when a specific response will lead to the expected reinforcement
Emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior.
Sudden understanding of a problem that implies the solution.
Mental image of a three-dimensional space that an organism has navigated.
Hidden Learning that exists without behavioral signs
Learning new behaviors or information by watching and imitating others (also known as social learning or modeling)
Classically conditioned negative reaction to a particular taste that has been associated with nausea or other illness
Built in-(innate) readiness to form associations between certain stimuli and responses.
Involuntary bodily process (such as blood pressure or heart rate) is recorded, and the information is fed back to an organism to increase voluntary control over that bodily function