CRCT Survivor 7th Grade Science

116 terms by Burrows-the-4th

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This is for Dodgen 7th Grade classes to study CRCT terms.

biomes

a broad, regional type of ecosystem characterized by distinctive climate and soil conditions and a distinctive kind of biological community adapted to those conditions.

tropical rain forest

type of forest near the equator that receives as much as 250 cm of rainfall yearly

savannah

a tropical or subtropical grassland containing scattered trees and drought-resistant undergrowth

temperate

mild, moderate

desert

an area that receives less than 25 centimeters of rain per year

taiga

biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw

tundra

a vast, level, treeless plain in the arctic regions. The ground beneath the surface of the tundras is frozen even in summer

mountain

land with steep sides that rises sharply (1,000 feet or more) from surrounding land; generally larger and more rugged than a hill

freshwater

does not contain any saltwater and can be rivers, lakes, streams,ponds, and wetlands

estuaries

The lower end of a river, where it meets ocean. Saltwater and freshwater mix here.

marine

covers 70% of earth's surface; largest biome; temperatures vary from region to region;, of or relating to the sea

dichotomous key

step by step approach to identify an organism using a series of paired descriptions

archaebacteria

bacteria that live under extreme conditions such as: high temperature, high salt content, and low oxygen

eubacteria

A kingdom that contains all prokaryotes except archaebacteria

protist

single-celled or simple multicellular eukaryotic organisms that generally do not fit in any other kingdom

fungi

group of simple, plantlike animals that live on dead organic matter

plant

Any multi-cellular autotroph that is incapable of movement. Contains chlorophyll.

animal

multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes that produce sexually and can move

sexual

reproduction in which the genes from two parents join to make an offspring

binary fission

type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells

conjugation

form of sexual reproduction in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information

budding

asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism

spores

single-celled reproductive bodies highly resistant to cold and heat damage; capable of new organisms

fertilization

process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell

regeneration

the ability to regrow a missing part of the body

asexual

a type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more parts

habitat

the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs

community

a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other

population

a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area

species

group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring

environment

Every biotic and abiotic factor that surrounds an organism

ecosystem

collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment

abiotic

nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate

biotic

Pertaining to life; environmental factors created by living organisms

Genes

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

Chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

Heredity

the passing of traits from parents to offspring

trait

specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another

genetics

the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms

Punnett square

diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross

probability

the likelihood that a particular event will occur

dominant allele

an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present

recessive allele

..., is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present

phenotype

..., The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its genetic make up.

genotype

..., genetic makeup of an organism

heterozygous

..., having two different alleles for a trait

homozygous

..., having two identical alleles for a trait

hybridization

..., breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms

karyotype

..., A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs

pedigree

..., a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family

inbreeding

..., continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics

clone

..., an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced

genetic engineering

..., process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms

mutation

any event that changes genetic structure

fossils

..., the preserved trace, imprint, or remains of a plant or animal

sedimentary rock

..., A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together

homologous structures

..., Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.

theory

..., a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world

law

..., a generalization that describes recurring facts or events in nature

evolution

..., the process by which species gradually change over time

adaptation

..., inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment

variation

..., any difference between individuals of the same species

natural Selection

..., process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest

Darwin's Finches

..., Several species of finches evolved to have different beak shapes to occupy a specific niche on the Galapagos islands.

Peppered Moths

..., supposedly went from light colored to dark "proving" Darwin's natural selection; used as proof of evolution

tissue

..., group of similar cells that perform a particular function

organ

..., a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body

organ system

..., group of organs that work together to perform a specific function

organism

..., a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently

digestive system

..., body system the breaks down food and absorbs nutrients

respiratory system

..., system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs

reproductive system

..., system of organs involved in producing offspring

circulatory system

..., The human body system that contains the heart, blood, and all of the blood vessels. It delivers all the nutrients to the cells

excretory system

..., the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance

skeletal muscular system

..., The bodily system that is composed of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue and functions in movement of the body or of materials through the body, and heat production.

immune system

..., the cells, tissues, and organs that protect the body from disease. the immune system is composed of the white blood cells, bone marrow, thymus gland, spleen and other parts

#spleen#

..., Organ near the stomach that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells

nervous system

..., the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

organelle

a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell

nucleus

..., a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

cytoplasm

..., a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

cell wall

..., strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria

cell membrane

..., a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell

Mitochondria

..., Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

Chloroplast

..., organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy

prokaryote

..., a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei

eukaryote

..., A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

autotroph

..., an organism that makes its own food

heterotroph

..., organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer

homeostasis

..., process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

diffusion

..., the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density

osmosis

..., diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

photosynthesis

..., process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches

respiration

..., the process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain

mitosis

..., cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

food web

..., network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem

food chain

..., a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten

energy pyramid

..., a diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web

producer

..., an organism that makes its own food

consumer

..., organisms that obtain food by eating other organisms

evaporation

..., the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas

condensation

..., The change of state from a gas to a liquid

precipitation

..., the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)

predator

..., any animal that lives by preying on other animals

prey

..., animal hunted or caught for food

symbiosis

..., the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent

parasitism

..., one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it

mutualism

..., symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship

commensalisms

..., a symbiotic relationship in which one member is benefited and the second is neither harmed nor benefited

competition

..., the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources

herbivore

..., any animal that feeds chiefly on grass and other plants

carnivore

..., Meat eater

omnivore

..., an animal that eats both plants and animals

scavenger

..., an organism that feeds on dead or decaying material

decomposer

..., organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter

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