Psychology in Action-Chapter 11

Created by alex_marco 

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Sex

-BIOLOGICAL male/female organs including chromosomal sex & sexual behavior
-With hermaphrodites, one genitalia system is typically more fully developed than the other (≠"true" hermaphrodite)

Gender

PSYCHOLOGICAL and sociocultural meanings added to biological sex (by society)

Gender Identity

-"How do you think of yourself?"
-Self identification-man or woman?

Gender Role

-Varies based on culture/society
-Societal expectations for normal and appropriate male and female behavior

(Less Variance in Sex and more in Gender)

-Masculine: Math & Science, and male-female difference is usually more significant in industrialized societies. This emphasizes the role of society.

Sexual Orientation

Primary erotic attraction
-Heterosexual
-Homosexual
-Bisexual

Transsexual

Gender identity doesn't match gonads. genitals, or internal accessory organs. However, gender identity usually goes with sex.

Transvestite

Individuals who cross-dress for emotional and/or sexual gratification
-'Trans'=change; 'vestire'=clothing

Androgyny

Combining typically male (assertive, athletic) with female (yielding, nurturing) characteristics
-'Andro'=male; 'gyn'=female
-No clear line of demarkation on continuum; only society-grey area=androgyny (less in rigid societies, more in progressive societies- ex. women in USA have jobs in same areas as men)

Male v. Female

-Chromosomes-XY v. XX
-Gonads-Testes v. Ovaries
-Hormones-Androgens (testosterone) v. Estrogen
-External Genitals-Penis,scrotum v. Labia, Clitoris, vaginal opening
-Internal Accessory Organs: Prostate, seminal vesicles, vas deferens v. Vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, cervic
-Secondary Sex Characteristics: Beard, low voice, sperm emission v. Breasts, menstruation
-Sexual orientation: Heterosexual, bisexual for both; gay-men, lesbian-women
-Gender identity- SELF-DEFINED; universal- Male identifies as male, Female as female
-Gender role- SOCIALLY DEFINED; variance- Masculine v. Feminine gender role

Internal & Exernal Sex Organs

-Both start off from undifferentiated tissue, which can develop into either the male or female for.
-FIRST THE GENETICS, THEN THE GONAD, THEN THE ORGANS
-Presence of XX or Xy chromosoms "tell" it which way to go; depends on the presence/absence of testosterone
-Glans of penis: Clitoris of vagina
-Scrotum : Vagina

Male & Female Internal Sex Organs

-Early in development, humans have an undifferentiated gonad and BOTH the undeveloped male internal system (Wolfian) and the female internal system (Mullerian)
-Testes secretes both testosterone and MIS/MIF.
-The testosterone causes the development of the Wolfian system. The MIS causes the Mullerian system to wither; male system developed while female system goes away in a typical male
-FIRST THE GENETICS, THEN THE GONAD, THEN THE ORGANS
-Female by default
-If you're a female still in development and take away estrogen, female sex characteristics will still develop w/o it

Male & Female External Sex Organs

-Early in development, humans have undifferentiated external sex organs
-Testes secretes testosterone--> metabolized into dihydrotestosterone in external sex organs--> masculization & development of male structures
-Without testosterone and MIS from testicles, development is female

Testosterone Info

-In hyenas, circulating testosterones are elevated during development and believed to masculize the female brain and clitoris (resembles a penis).
-In humans, testosterone crosses into the brain and is there aromatized to estrogen--> estrogen masculizes the male brain. (Females have high levels of alpha-fetoprotein which binds circulating estrogen in the female, preventing it from crossing into the brain)

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