knowing something through the supernatural (religion)
accepting what was from the past; relying on tradition binds people to their culture can, however, enhance stereotypes negatively
rely on the experience and knowledge from authorities; can result in victimization
trying to see why and understand what happened
latin meaning "to know"
study of human action and interaction as a whole; designed to help free people; gives us a new window through which we can view the world.
most closely related to sociology; interaction of people in nonliterate societies; interested in small, non industrial societies
focuses on development of physical and mental processes of human behavior
how people deal with production, distribution and consumption of goods
oldest, most encompassing, broadest; study of human behavior of all dimensions over time.
notice what is happening while being free of expectations
create sample circumstances and we see what happens
questionaires, analyzing data
not laws; not something that can be generalized
things about ourselves as individuals that we have no or a very small amount of control over; have an impact on our behavior
we all need knowledge to survive; survival depends on our ability to absorb culture; society was based on the individual
interactionist theory; identification leads to socialization; recognition of self develops through interactions with others
berger's social map
product of society
charles horton cooley
the "looking glass theory"; describes how society socialized as individuals; we feel different around different people; we tend to exhibit a different self in different social settings
george herbert mead
symbolic interactionism: language and role imitation; explaining the stages through which the individual travels to discover ourselves; language gives us a mind and allows us to communicate ideas; significant others, generalized others, the "i and "me" self.
recognized that something hidden in our minds; the motives of what we do is unconscious, mind is composed of seven different layers
"neo freudian", personality could change at anytime through life; cultural environment shapes ego, impacts personalit, peers are significant impacts on our personalities and egos. a person is a product of their culture.
rapid social change is destabilizing; in conditions of rapid social changes, things start to break down; change becomes rapid as modernization occurs.
the breakdown or absene of social norms and values
results from a lack of integration of the individual into society and lack of integration of the individual into family
sacrifice of life in obedience to a higher authority; people who risk their lives for others
results from a lack of regulation of the individual by society; norms and rules no longer seem to apply; rapid change makes norms back down.
process by which people develop a sense of personal identity and learn the ways of a particular society.
whatever the participants agree that is it (william and dorothy thomas)
effects that society can have on us as individuals; an example of what people are like if they're completely unsocialized
channels energy into more successful channels; not conscious
development of neurotic issues due to not getting what we want; repressed and frustrated
primary social group
informal, intimate and social relationships
secondary social group
relate to one another impersonally, "contractual relationships"; involves only specific actions and obligations necessary to achieve a certain goal.
historical change that affected individuals; shift from rural to urban settings
web of group affiliation
secondary groups have very particular functions
to put order on behavior to achieve goals efficiently.
primary group shapes individual
individuals as the main source of social identity
reference group theory; reference group has a lot to do with shaping who we are as individuals
definition of the situation
provides individual with a role assignment, can create own world that individual accepts
mock prison, people cna be taught in group situations to do things completely wrong; pressure to conformity is apart of human nature.
people follow authorities, consequence of the experiment isn't known; is it okay to hurt/traumatize people for science?
the sociological imagination
mills - there are characteristics that we have that are social that we may not even be aware of
structured inequality in society
max weber's criteria
power, wealth, prestige/status
because of who you are
because of what you have achieved; because of your own acomplishments
formal system of stratification
slavery, caste, estate, class
organizes human behavior in terms of genetics
social stratification is justified by achievement; more open than traditional systems
position in society never changes, you're born into your position
movement in positions is possible; class systems
struggle for survival, losers lose and winners win; better elements prevail
ability to make people do things even if they dont want to
born into your social rank; closed system
higher respect from certain professions; mostly open
the right to respect or acceptance of ones word, command, thought, etc; commanding influence.
wealth as power, more power if you're wealthy
attempt to get people to sign on to having an america with a constitution.
easiest way to organize a large group of people
group of people who can hold the power and hold on to it
power rested in the hands of a few people; a tiny group of people depending on the size of the unit; they run the country whether or not there are elections.
wrote "man in society"
c wright mills
wrote "the sociological imagination"
wrote "on bad teeth"
wrote "the process of human socialization"
wrote "anomic suicide"
wrote "metropolis and mental life"
wrote "the dynamics of social stratification"
wrote "the power elite in retrospect"
wrote "was democracy just a moment?"
wrote "on bureaucracy"
based on established custom; emphasis on stability rather tan change
based on the exceptional personal characteristics of the authortiy figure; often leads to social change or even revolution
based on an office or position; extends only to specific goals defined by a society
specific kinds of knowledge are valued by society; society created crednetials to identify and certify experts
poert based on the threat of harm
power is not concentrated, but spread among veto groups