GEOL1121: Chapter 8 - From Sediment to Sedimentary Rock

24 terms by catherinelennon 

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deposition

The laying down of sediment.

clastic sediment

Sediment formed from fragmented rock and mineral debris produced by weathering and erosion.

chemical sediment

Sediment formed by the precipitation of minerals dissolved in lakewater, riverwater, or seawater.

biogenic sediment

Sediment that is primarily composed of plant and animal remains, or precipitates as a result of biologic processes.

lithification

The group of processes by which loose sediment is transformed into sedimentary rock.

bedding

The layered arrangement of strata in a body of sediment or sedimentary rock.

bedding surface

The top or bottom surface of a rock stratum or bed.

compaction

Reduction of pore space in a sediment as a result of the weight of overlying sediments.

cementation

The process in which substances dissolved in pore water precipitate out and form a matrix in which grains of sediment are joined together.

recrystallization

The formation of new crystalline mineral grains from old ones.

conglomerate

A clastic sedimentary rock with large fragments in a finer-grained matrix.

sandstone

A medium-grained clastic sedimentary rock in which the clasts are typically, but not necessarily, dominated by quartz grains.

mudstone

A very fine grained sedimentary rock of the same composition as shale but without fissility.

shale

A very fine grained fissile or laminated sedimentary rock, consisting primarily of clay sized particles.

evaporite

A rock formed by the evaporation of lake water or seawater, followed by lithification of the resulting salt deposit.

banded iron formation

A type of chemical sedimentary rock rich in iron minerals and silica.

limestone

A sedimentary rock that consists primarily of the mineral calcite.

peat

A biogenic sediment formed from the accumulation and compaction of plant remains.

coal

A combustible rock formed from the lithification of plant-rich sediment.

delta

A sedimentary deposit commonly triangle shaped, that forms where a stream enters a standing body of water.

eolian sediment

Sediment that is carried and deposited by the wind.

estuary

A semi-enclosed body of coastal water, in which fresh water mixes with seawater.

turbidity current

A turbulent, gravity-driven flow consisting of a mixture of sediment and water, which conveys sediment from the continental shelf to the deep sea.

rift valley

A linear, fault-bounded valley along a divergent plate boundary or spreading center.

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