Cell, Member Transport, DNA/ Protien Test 2

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The cell is the basic _____ of living things.

UNIT

Made up mostly of phospolipids

Membrane

Used during Mitosis

Centrioles

Produces Energy

Mitochondria

Packages cell products for release

Golgi Apparatus

Sac of digestive enzymes

Lyosome

Halls or tunnels throughout cyoplasm

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Powerhouse

Mitochondria

Is there a cell wall on cells of your body?

No- cell wall are not found in animals

All cells have only one nucleus
TRUE or FALSE

False-- Heart, Liver cells and Urinary cells have more than one nucleus.

Example of Hypertonic Solution-

Concentrated Sugar solution

Example of Hypotonic Solution-

Distilled Water

Active Transport

Carrier molecules are required for which type of transport across the cell membrane?

Diffusion, molecules always move from areas of _______ concentration to area of _______ concentration.

High to Low

Osmosis means the movement of _________ from _________ to ____________.

water from high concentrated of water to a low concentrated of water.

If a virus were to enter a cell and destroy its centrosomes, how would the cell be affected?

It would be unable to undergo mitosis.

What are the two major types of nucleic acids

DNA and RNA

Where is DNA found?

Mostly in the Nucleus, some in the Mitochondria

What does DNA stand for?

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

DNA structure if a __________ ________.

Double Helix

Bonding between bases in DNA is always Cytosine with ___________ and thymine with ____________.

Guanine, Adenine

Osmosis

Invoves movement of water only.

Diffusion

A simple scattering or spreading.
Movement of solvent and/ or particles

Facilitated Diffusion

Involves the use of a carrier molecule but no energy.

Active Transport

Moves substance against the concentration gradient. Is physiological- requires life.

Filtration

Movement because of hydrostatic pressure difference.
Gravity can cause this.
Sorting by size through pores.

Eukaryotic

"TRUE nucleus" membrane bound

Prokaryotic

NO membrane bound

Three basic Structures of the Cell

Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, and Nucleus

Plasma Membrane

boundary of the cell

Cytoplasm

contains all the organelles

Nucleus

contains genetic material

Plasma Membrane

Phosphlipid bilayer, Semipermeable, and fluid- mosaic model

Ribosomes

Made in nucleolus
Made of RNA
Protein Synthesis

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Network in the cytoplasm
Rough ER
Smooth ER

Rough ER

protiens

Smooth ER

Lipids

Golgi

Cisternae
"Warehouse"
Storage& Packaging of cell products

Mitochondrion

"Power Plant"
Cristae- where ATP (energy) is made
have own DNA & RNA
makes their own enzyemes

Microfilaments

Muscles

Intermediate Filament

Bones

Microtubule

Transport and movement

Cell Fibers

Microfilament, Intermediate Filament, and Microtubule

Microvilli

Tubular extensions of the plasma membrane; contains a bunble of actin filaments- increase surface area for absorptions.

Cilia

Moves substance across the cell surface

Flagella

only in humans in the sprem tall propel the cell

Cytoskeleton

like your skeleton- supports the cell- gives the cell its shape

Cristae

Double membrane with folds

Secretory Vesicles

sacs filled with cell product that move them out of the cell.

Peroxisomes

detoxification of the cell

Passive Transport

Moving from HIGH to LOW- down the gradient
NO ATP required

Active Transport

Moving from LOW to HIGH- up of against the gradient
ATP is required

Solute Pumping

Moving solutes across membrane using membrane proteins
3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in

Bulk Transport

Moving substances across the membrane using vesicles

Exocytosis

Moving substance out of the cell

Endocytosis

Moving substance into the cell

Pinocytosis

Cell "drinking"

Phagocytosis

Cell "eating"

DNA

Deoxyribose

Four nitrogenous bases for DNA

Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine

Purine for DNA

Adenine and Guanine

Pyrimidines for DNA

Cytosine and Thymine

A human somatic cell contains genetic information

half from each parent

Human sex cells contain a total of ______ chromosomes

23

Once fertilized, the zygote, a single cell begins to multiply. The complete set of genetic information ____ must be replicated and passed on to all future cells

46

Breaks apart the two strands- replication fork

DNA helicase

Bind complementary DNA nucleotides to two strands

DNA polymerase

Double strands are formed

1/2 new and 1/2 old

Histone

Double helix wraps around 8 proteins called _______ to make nucleosome.

Chromatin

forms a supercoil.

Chromosome

The supercoil then arranges into the X-Shaped _____________ just before cell division.

Nucleus

DNA codes for everything made by the cell and is housed in the _____________.

Ribosomes make

Proteins

Proteins are made of

amino acids

Form between amino acids

Peptide Bonds.

Ribosomes are found on

Nuclear envelope, on the Rough ER, and free in the Cytoplasm

Transcription

copying the gene from DNA by making complementary messenger RNA.

Translation

ribosomal RNA subunits come together aound mRNA to "read" the code and determine what amino acids are needed.

Transfer RNA

carries amino acids to rRNA/mRNA. The tRNA anticodon binds to the mRNA codon to "deliver"correct amino acids. The process continues until all amino acids are delivered and final STOP codon is read.

DNA Helicase

unzips a portion of the DNA

RNA Polymerase

binds complementary RNA nucleotides to DNA sense strand.

AUG

begins amino acid delivery

tRNA

delivers amino acids

5' to 3'

The DNA is always read from:

Codon

The three- base sequence on a messenger RNA molecule that provides the genetic information used in protein synthesis; code for given amino acid

Anticodon

The three- base sequence complementary to the messenger RNA codon.

ATP

energy

Mitosis

Produces two daughter (indentical)cells. GROWTH, MAINTAINCE, REPAIR- 46 chromosome

Meiosis

creat 4 genetic different in the body--sex cells- 23 chromosomes

4 classes of Biomolecules

Carbohydrates, Protein, Lipids, Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates

Simple and Complex

Simple Carbohydrates

- just a few carbon
Monosaccharides, Pentose, Hexose, Disaccharides

Pentose

5C- ribose(RNA), deoxyribose(DNA)

Hexose

6C- glucose, galactose, fructose

Disaccharides

maltose, lactose, sucrose

Complex Carbohydrates

- long chains of carbons
starch, glycogen, cellulose

Starch

plant energy storage

Glycogen

animal energy storage ( muscle and liver)

Cellulose

plant sturcture

Protein

serve many purposes in our bodies. They protect us in the form of antibodies. They move to allow our muscles to contract. They are the gates into and out of our cells.

Essential

we must ingest 8 of proteins and we call them ____________ amino acids.

Peptide Bonds

form betweenamino acids through dehydration synthesisto form polypeptide chains.

50 to 2000

Proteins are made of polypeptide chains that consist of _________ amino acids

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