The Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century
Although an innovative phase in western thinking,
was based upon the intellectual and scientific accomplishments of previous centuries.
All of the following are considered possible influences and causes of the Scientific Revolution except
the practical knowledge and technical skills emphasized by sixteenth-century
According to Leonardo Da Vinci, what subject was the key to understanding the nature of things?
Scholars devoted to Hermetic-ism
saw the world was a living embodiment of divinity where humans could use mathematics and magic to dominate nature.
The general conception of the universe before Copernicus was that
The Earth was the stationary center and heavenly spheres orbited it
The greatest achievements in science during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries came in what three areas?
Astronomy, medicine, and mechanics.
Copernicus's heliocentric theory was
Based on the observations of several earlier astronomers and his own computations
The immediate reaction of the clerics to the theories of Copernicus was
condemnation, initially by Protestant leaders like Luther who condemned the discovery as contrary to their literal interpretation of the Bible
Following upon Copernicus's heliocentric theorie
Johannes Kepler used data to derive laws of planetary motion that confirmed Copernicus's heliocentric theory but that showed the orbits were elliptical.
Kepler's laws of planetary motion
gained acceptance despite disproving Aristotle's
conviction that the motion of planets was steady and unchanging
One of the dramatic findings of Galileo's observations was that
That planets were not made of some perfect substance but had natural properties similar to the earth
The Catholic Roman Inquisition attacked Galileo for his scientific ideas with the encouragement of
elements within the church pledged to defend ancient Aristotelian ideas and Cathlic orthodoxy
Galileo's Dialogue on the Two World Systems
was really an attempt to
Support Copernicus through a publication in Italian accessible to a wide audience
What actions did the Catholic Church pursue concerning Galileo and his ideas?
forced to recant them in a trial before the Inquisition
Isaac Newton's scientific discoveries
although readily accepted in his own country, were resisted on the continent
In Newton's Principia, he demonstrated through his rules of reasoning that the universe was
a regulated machine operating according to universal laws
Newton's universal law of gravitation proved that
through its mathematical proof it could explain all motion in the universe
Paracelsus revolutionized the world of medicine in the sixteenth century by
Advocating the chemical philosophy of medicine
Among the following, who is not associated with major changes in sixteenth and seventeenth-century scientific research?
William Harvey's On the Motion of the Heart and Blood
refuted the ideas of
the liver as the beginning point of the circulation of blood
The scientist whose work led to the law th
at states that the volume of a gas varies with the
pressure exerted upon it and who argued that matter is composed of atoms, later known as the chemical elements, was
The role of women in the Scientific Revolution is illustrated by
Margaret Cavendish, who participated in her era's
The overall effect of the Scientific Revolution on the argument about women was to
generate facts about differences between men and
women that were used to prove male dominance
What was the name of Descartes' book that expounded his theories about the universe
Discourse on Method
Descartes believed that the world could be understood by
the same principles inherent in mathematical thinking.
Francis Bacon was important to the Scientific Revolution for his emphasis on
empirical, experimental observation
Organized religions in the seventeenth century
rejected scientific discoveries that conflicted with the Christian view of the world
In his work Pensees, Pascal
attempted to convince rationalists that Christianity was valid by appealing to their reason and emotions.
Concerning the first important scientific societies, the French Academy differed from the English RoyalSociety in the former's
government support and control.
During the seventeenth century, royal and princely patronage of science
became an international phenomenon
The scientific societies of early modern Europe established the first
scientific journals appearing regularly
Science became an integral part of Western
culture in the eighteenth century because
it offered a new means to make profits and maintain social order