Chapter 17

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The Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century

Although an innovative phase in western thinking,
was based upon the intellectual and scientific accomplishments of previous centuries.

All of the following are considered possible influences and causes of the Scientific Revolution except

the practical knowledge and technical skills emphasized by sixteenth-century
universities

Which of these ancient authorities was not relied on by medieval scholars

Galileo

According to Leonardo Da Vinci, what subject was the key to understanding the nature of things?

Mathematics

Scholars devoted to Hermetic-ism

saw the world was a living embodiment of divinity where humans could use mathematics and magic to dominate nature.

The general conception of the universe before Copernicus was that

The Earth was the stationary center and heavenly spheres orbited it

The greatest achievements in science during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries came in what three areas?

Astronomy, medicine, and mechanics.

The Ptolemaic conception of the universe was also known as

the geocentric conception

Copernicus's heliocentric theory was

Based on the observations of several earlier astronomers and his own computations

Copernicus was a native of

Poland

The immediate reaction of the clerics to the theories of Copernicus was

condemnation, initially by Protestant leaders like Luther who condemned the discovery as contrary to their literal interpretation of the Bible

The ideas of Copernicus were

nearly as complicated as those of Ptolemy

Following upon Copernicus's heliocentric theorie

Johannes Kepler used data to derive laws of planetary motion that confirmed Copernicus's heliocentric theory but that showed the orbits were elliptical.

Tycho Brahe

recorded astronomical data from the observatory he built with at Uraniborg Castle.

Kepler's laws of planetary motion

gained acceptance despite disproving Aristotle's
conviction that the motion of planets was steady and unchanging

One of the dramatic findings of Galileo's observations was that

That planets were not made of some perfect substance but had natural properties similar to the earth

The first European to make systematic observations of the heavens by telescope was

Galileo

The Catholic Roman Inquisition attacked Galileo for his scientific ideas with the encouragement of

elements within the church pledged to defend ancient Aristotelian ideas and Cathlic orthodoxy

Galileo's Dialogue on the Two World Systems
was really an attempt to

Support Copernicus through a publication in Italian accessible to a wide audience

What actions did the Catholic Church pursue concerning Galileo and his ideas?

forced to recant them in a trial before the Inquisition

Galileo's ideas on motion included the

principal of Inertia

Isaac Newton's scientific discoveries

although readily accepted in his own country, were resisted on the continent

In Newton's Principia, he demonstrated through his rules of reasoning that the universe was

a regulated machine operating according to universal laws

Newton's universal law of gravitation proved that

through its mathematical proof it could explain all motion in the universe

The Greco-Roman doctor who had the most influence on medieval medical thought was

Galen

Paracelsus revolutionized the world of medicine in the sixteenth century by

Advocating the chemical philosophy of medicine

Among the following, who is not associated with major changes in sixteenth and seventeenth-century scientific research?

Galen

On the Fabric of the Human Body

was Andreas Vesalius' masterpiece on anatomical structure

William Harvey's On the Motion of the Heart and Blood
refuted the ideas of

the liver as the beginning point of the circulation of blood

The scientist whose work led to the law th
at states that the volume of a gas varies with the
pressure exerted upon it and who argued that matter is composed of atoms, later known as the chemical elements, was

Robert Boyle

Antoine Lavoisier

is regarded as the father of modern chemistry

The role of women in the Scientific Revolution is illustrated by

Margaret Cavendish, who participated in her era's
scientific debates.

The overall effect of the Scientific Revolution on the argument about women was to

generate facts about differences between men and
women that were used to prove male dominance

Margaret Cavendish attacked the belief

that humans through science were masters of nature.

Maria Winkelmann

A German astronomer

Benedict Spinoza believed that women

were "naturally" inferior to men

The philosophy of René Descartes

stressed a separation of mind and matter.

What was the name of Descartes' book that expounded his theories about the universe

Discourse on Method

Descartes believed that the world could be understood by

the same principles inherent in mathematical thinking.

Francis Bacon was important to the Scientific Revolution for his emphasis on

empirical, experimental observation

Organized religions in the seventeenth century

rejected scientific discoveries that conflicted with the Christian view of the world

Benedict de Spinoza

claimed that God was not just the creator the universe-God was the universe

For Spinoza, the failure to understand God led to

people using nature for their own self-interest

In his work Pensees, Pascal

attempted to convince rationalists that Christianity was valid by appealing to their reason and emotions.

For Blaise Pascal, humans

could not understand infinity, only God could

Concerning the first important scientific societies, the French Academy differed from the English RoyalSociety in the former's

government support and control.

During the seventeenth century, royal and princely patronage of science

became an international phenomenon

The scientific societies of early modern Europe established the first

scientific journals appearing regularly

Science became an integral part of Western
culture in the eighteenth century because

it offered a new means to make profits and maintain social order

The key figure of the Scientific Revolution who would inspire the search for natural laws in other fields, including society and economics, was

Newton

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