AP Human Geography: Culture

127 terms by MrChromatic 

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Culture

the behaviors and belied characteristics of a particular group

Cultural Landscape

a geographic area the includes cultural resources and natural resources associated with the interactions between nature and human behavior

Sequent-Occupance

notion that successful societies leave their cultural imprints on a place each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape

Carl Sauer

Argued that cultural landscapes should be the focus of human geography

Derwent Whittlesey

Coined sequent-occupance

Irredenta

a region that is related ethically/historically to one country, but is ruled by another

Irredentism

policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion aimed at a national group living in a neighboring country

Language

means of communicating by sounds and/or symbols

Franglais

terms or expressions borrowed from the English language, A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language.

Culture Hearth

place of origin of a major culture

Civilization

a society in an advanced stage of development

Cold War (1945-1991)

period of time after WWII where nuclear threats and confrontation were high between the USA and USSR, rather than actual warfare

Dialect

the language/vocabulary of a specific group of people

Colonialism

attempt by one country (usually hegemonic power) to establish settlements and to impose its economic and cultural principles in another country

Hegemonic Power

one main power controlling everything else

Imperialism

policy of extending rule over other countries

Balkanization

process of division of a region/state into smaller regions/states that are often hostile with each other

Ideograms

a character that indicates the meaning of a thing without indicating the sounds to say it (e.g. - Chinese, Korean, Russian)

Mesopotamia

site of several ancient civilizations in present day Iraq

Mesoamerica

site of several ancient civilizations in present day Mexico and Central America

Ottoman Empire

Muslim empire that controlled southeastern Europe, the Middle East, and most of North Africa between the 16th - 18th centuries

Supranationalism

method of decision making in multi-national political communities

Carrying Capacity

population size an environment can sustain/take care of

Cultural (Spatial) Diffusion

the spread of ideas, knowledge or innovation from its origin to other cultures and areas where they are adopted

Expansion

an idea or innovation developed in a source area, remain strong there, and also spreading (a type of diffusion)

Contagious

nearly all adjacent individuals are affected (a type of diffusion)

Hierarchical

main channel of diffusion is some segment of those who are susceptible to or adopting what is being diffused (a type of diffusion)

Stimulus

an idea of innovation is not immediately adopted, yet does have an impact (a type of diffusion)

Relocation Diffusion

requires the actual movement of individuals who have already adopted the idea or innovation and carry it to a new location where they disseminate it (a type of diffusion)

Migrant

the idea or innovation loses its strength/population at the site of the origin (a type of diffusion)

Accultration

process in which one culture substantially changes through interaction with another (one-way transfer)

Transcultration

two-way exchange of culture traits between societies in close contact

Syncretism

two cultures come together and create a brand new culture

Time-Distance Decay

the further from it's source/longer it takes, the less likely the innovation is to be adopted

Culture Barriers

prevailing attitudes and/or taboos

Culture v. Ethnicity

culture is learned, ethnicity is cultural history & lifestyles

Devolution

process where regions in a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of a central government

Lingua Franca

common language used by speakers of different languages

Antecedent

preceding in time or order

Subsequent

following in time or order

Superimposed

on or above something else (layers)

Relict

surviving remnants of something when most all of it is gone

Boundaries

a line determining the limits of something

Prorupt

burst through (a type of boundary)

Elongated

stretched in length (a type of boundary)

Fragmented

disconnected/broken (a type of boundary)

Perforated

series of small holes (a type of boundary)

Compact

compressed (a type of boundary)

Nation-State

people with a shared identity and culture (a nation) who possess their own territory and state government (e.g. - Aboriginal nation-state government within a country) (a type of boundary)

Nation

grouping of people who share history, culture, language or ethnic origin, often possessing/seeking its own government. (a type of boundary)

State

territory occupied within a nation that has the authority to make rules/govern its people (a type of boundary)

Cultural Landscape

The distinct imprint of cultures on the land

Cultural Hearths

Several sources, crucibles, of cultural growth and achievement developed in Eurasia, Africa, and America.

Cultural Perception

Culture groups have varying ideas and attitudes about space, place, and territory.

Cultural Environments

This area deals with the role of culture in human understanding, use, and alteration of the environment.

Political Ecology

And area of inquiry fundamentally concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political-economic arrangements and understandings.

assimilation

The taking into or absorption of cultural traits

culture trait

A single attribute of culture

culture complex

A combination of traits not necessarily defined to a culture

culture system

Various culture complexes may have traits in common, making it possible to group them together

culture realm

Grouping together of cultural systems

Agricultural revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants, believed to have happened in the FERTILE CRESCENT, in a region close to the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers.

deglaciation

the gradual melting away of a glacier from the surface of a landmass

Fertile Crescent

Where the Agricultural revolution occurred, near Tigris and Euphrates.

Holocene epoch

The most recent 12,000 years of Earth history: the warm phase following the ice age.

interglaciation

sustained warming phase between glaciations during an ice age

Late Cenozoic Ice Age

The last great ice age that ended 10,000 years ago, lasting for the past 2 million years.

Paleolithic

The earliest and longest stage of the Stone Age,

plant domestication

when people cultivate or "care for" crops for agriculture

social stratification

the condition of being arranged in social strata or classes within a group

Stone Age

The period where people used Stone tools

Ziggurat

The tallest structure in Mesopotamia; a tower of the the great temple

dialect

the usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people

Indo-European

predecessor language of English and most of the European languages, LAAAAAAAARGEST family

isogloss

A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate

language family

A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.

language group

A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.

language subfamily

a smaller group of related languages within a language family

linguistic diversification

variety of different languages being spoken

preliterate society

a society that can speak a language but cannot write it

standard language

The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.

Amerind

the oldest, largest, and most widely distributed superfamily spread from the shores of Hudson Bay to the coast of Tierra del Fuego

Austronesian

the family of languages spoken in Australia and Formosa and Malaysia and Polynesia

conquest theory

the theory that early Proto-Indo-European speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tounges

deep reconstruction

process by which an extinct language is recreated

Eskimo-Aleut

Family of languages spoken by those concentrated along arctic and near-Arctic shore.

Fijian

a discrete Malayo-Polynesian offshoot spoken in Fiji

Malayo-Polynesian

The forerunner of a large number of languages, a subfamily of Austronesian

Na-Dene

Family diffused in NW Canada and Alaska, second oldest & largest family. Less widely diffused.

Nostratic

hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families.

Polynesian

the language of New Zealand's Maori people, also from the Austro-Tai family

sound shifts

The changing of a word over different languages

creolization

refers to the process in which a pidgin becomes the native language for a given group

Esperanto

A made-up Latin-based language, which its European proponents in the early twentieth century hoped would become a global language. (failed, pl0x. Less QQ, more piu piu)

lingua franca

a common language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce, "language of the land"

monolingual states

countries in which only one language is spoken

multilingual states

a state that uses many languages

official language

The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.

pidgin

a lingua franca that has been simplified and modified through contact with other languages

toponymy

The study of place names

animal domestication

When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.

Ottoman empire

Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.

Artifacts

Tools and instruments used by a culture

Mentifacts

The central, enduring elements, ideas and beliefs

Sociofacts

links between individuals and groups that unite a culture, family structure and political, educational and religious institutions.

Mesoamerica

Central America

Andean America

Southwest coast of South America

West Africa

[North] Western most region of Africa

Nile Valley

Surrounding areas of the Nile River/Egypt

Indus Valley

Western border of India

Ganges Delta

South Asia/Western border of India/Bengal

Wie/Huang Rivers

Surrounding areas of the Wie and Huang Rivers/East China

Franz Boas and Alfred Kroeber

Coined environmental possibilism

Weber

Coined environmental determinism

Torsten Hagerstrand

another famous geographer that wrote about cultural diffusion

Agricultural Origins and Dispersals

Written by Sauer in 1952

ethnocentrism

The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture

cultural relativism

The practice of judging another culture by its own standards (putting aside his her cultural preferences)

universalizing religions

Religions that appeal to everyone, regardless of where they live

ethnic religions

Appeal primarily to one group living in one place

Branches

Large and basic division of a religion

Denominations

Divisions of branches that unite local groups in a single administrative body

Sects

Relatively small groups that do not affiliate with the more mainstream denominations

shamanism

An ethnic religion is which people follow their shaman, a religious leader and teacher believed to connect with the supernatural

animism

The belief that inanimate objects have spirits

agriculture theory

the theory which states that with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe

Renfrew/Anatolian model

a belief by Colin Renfrew that argues that the first speakers of Proto-Indian-European lived 2,000 years before the Kurgans, in eastern Anatolia, part of present-day Turkey

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