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30 pounds

typical child at 24 months weighs...

2 years

children reach half their adult height by age

increase in fat

early weight gain is mainly

17+ hours

how many hours per day do newbords spend sleeping

cultural norms

nost likely reason that parents would choose a co-sleeping arrangement for their infant

neuron

basic nerve cell in the central nervous system

cortex

outer layer of the brain and is responsible for thinking, feeling, and sensing

dendrites

brain weight triples in the first two years of life primarily because of this growth...

preforntal cortex

area in the brain that plans, anticipates, and controls impulses and is the last part of the brain to mature

experience dependent

brain functions that rely on specific experiences to develop

self-righting

Jen had little toys to play w/ as an infant but feveloped into a curious, intelligent preschooler who concoocted toys out of whatever she could find. She is using...

sensation

eyes, ears, tongue, skin, or mouth detect a stimulus

cognition

thinking about what you have preceived

motor skill

learned ability to move and control some parts of the body

same motor skills in the same sequence

healthy infants develop motor skills in what type of order...

breast-fed vs. bottle-fed

breast-fed babies have fewer allergies and stomachaches

wasting and malnutrition

dies which lack adequate protein

sensorimotor stage

use senses and motor skills to understand the world

birth

Piaget believes children begin to develop cognitivity at

new adaptation and anticipation

dvelops prior to new means through active experimentation

assimilation and accommodation

Piaget believes these are two elements of adaptation

second of Piaget's sesnorimotor stage

infant grabbing a bottle to suck on

interesting sights last

5 mo old Pat learned to play patty-cake when her sister claps her hands and smiles

secondary circular reaction

infant becoming responsive to toher people and to objects and touches and moving them

secondary circular reaction

9 mo old. reaches to grab something out of curiosity

prior to Piaget, most people believed children's cognitive abilities were...

children understood objects the say way adults do

Sensorimotor intelligence (final stage)

toddlers begin to anticipate and solve simple problems by using mental combinations

deferred imitation

10 mo old may later pick up and try to use scissors that his brother used to cut paper

habituation

becoming boared w/ an object after repeated exposure to it

affordance

the opportunity for preception and interaction that is offered by people, the environment, and objects

depth perception

infant's reaction to the visual cliff measures

infants can't remember their infancy because

language is an important tool in memory formation, and infants have not yet developed language skills

development of spoken language

reflexes, cooing, babbling, sopken words

why do English-speaking children use more nouns that verbs when they speak (compared to Chinese or Korean)

interactions between children and objects are more common in English-speaking cultures, while social interactions are more common in Asian cultures

rapid speech develops because (10 mo)

parents' talk to child frequently

language acquisition (chomsky)

children have an inborn ability to learn language

hybrid theory of language learning

idea that "multiple attentional, social and linguistics cures" contribute to early language learning

spontaneous and uncensored

emotions that develop over first 2 years

pleasure and pain

emotions that are apparent at birth

social smile

6 weeks, most recent emotional reaction

stranger wariness

infant's distress at an unfamiliar person

social awareness and reactions to stress

infants' emotional development is directly connected to brain development in these areas

mouth

according to psychoanalytic theory, the prime focus of pleasure in early infancy is:

explore his or her world

after successfully resolving Erikon's first stage, a child can be expected to:

Erikson's theory believes of toddlers

they want to gain a sense of autonomy, or control, over their own bodies

personality

molded by parents

temperament

linked to biological patters that appear in infancy

neurotic

2 year ols Ralphie is anxious and moody and his temperament is classified in the Big Five as...

self-aware

distal parents tends to produce children who are

goodness of fit

parents find a way to provide a smooth interaction between their child's temperament and his social, family, and school life

mutual interaction

a crucial aspect of synchrony

secure attachment

ex: child being willing to explore a new environment in the presence of the caregiver

father-infant vs mother-infant interaction

babies seem to show more excitement for their fathers

sensorimotor exploration

infant day care is of high quality if caregivers emphasis

brain maturation

influences an infant's sleep patterns

experience-dependent brain functions

depend on exposure to particular events in an individual's enmironment. One person's brain will develop differently than anothers because of their unique experiences

fine motor skills

transfering objects from one hand to another

anger

is a healthy response to his frustration

cognitive theorists

values and thoughts determine one's perspective on the world

social referencing

a girl watching her mother greet a friend, the firl then smiles because her mother is happy.

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