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Chapter 9 Water and Minerals

Water constitutes ______ percent of body weight.
A) 10-20
B) 25-45
C) 50-70
D) 75-95

C) 50-70

The amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by
A) oxygen concentration.
B) glucose concentration.
C) the presence of fatty acids.
D) ion concentration.

D) ion concentration.

The two most significant extracellular ions are
A) sodium and chloride.
B) phosphate and potassium.
C) potassium and sodium.
D) chloride and potassium.

A) sodium and chloride.

Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via
A) conduction.
B) radiation.
C) respiration.
D) evaporation.

D) evaporation.

Minerals are classified in which way?
A) Major minerals are needed in amounts of 500 mg per day or greater.
B) Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less.
C) Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 10 mg per day or less.
D) Major minerals are needed in amounts of 200 mg per day or greater

B) Trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less.

Which of the following statements does not describe the role of minerals in the body?
A) They make possible the transfer of nerve impulses.
B) They are constituents of important body compounds.
C) They provide 4 kcalories per gram.
D) They help maintain water balance.

C) They provide 4 kcalories per gram.

The typical American diet contains approximately ___ mgs of sodium.
A) 700 to 1,200
B) 1,300 to 2.200
C) 2,300 to 4,700
D) 5,000 to 10,000

C) 2,300 to 4,700

All foods in their unprocessed form tend to be low in sodium except
A) milk and dairy products.
B) whole grains.
C) legumes.
D) fruits.

A) milk and dairy products.

Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will
A) cause damage to the kidneys.
B) result in edema.
C) increase fecal excretion of sodium.
D) increase urinary excretion of sodium.

D) increase urinary excretion of sodium.

Potassium performs all the following functions except which one?
A) It maintains the ability to see at night.
B) It maintains fluid balance.
C) It assists nerve transmission.
D) It maintains normal heart function.

A) It maintains the ability to see at night.

The AI for sodium for those under 51 years of age is
A) 500 mg/day.
B) 1000 mg/day.
C) 1500 mg/day.
D) 2000 mg/day.

C) 1500 mg/day

Potassium is found in the largest quantities in
A) milk and dairy products.
B) meats.
C) fruits and vegetables.
D) refined grains.

C) fruits and vegetables.

In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in
A) the liver.
B) intracellular fluid.
C) bones and teeth.
D) nerve cells.

C) bones and teeth

Which of the following is not a function of calcium?
A) Muscle contraction
B) Appetite regulation
C) Blood clotting
D) Normal nerve transmission

B) Appetite regulation

According to the RDA, the mineral that you need in the largest amount is
A) iron.
B) iodine.
C) calcium.
D) copper.

C) calcium

Phosphorus functions in all the following ways except which one?
A) It is a cofactor for a variety of enzymes.
B) It is important for blood glucose regulation.
C) It is a component of cell membranes.
D) It is a component of DNA.

B) It is important for blood glucose regulation.

What is magnesium's primary function?
A) It acts as the carrier for calcium absorption.
B) It is important in hemoglobin synthesis.
C) It maintains mucus production in the digestive tract.
D) It is important for nerve and heart function.

D) It is important for nerve and heart function.

We get most of the sulfur in our diet from
A) carbohydrates.
B) water.
C) fats and oils.
D) proteins.

D) proteins.

The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by
A) excretion in the urine.
B) absorption in the small intestine.
C) absorption through the skin.
D) absorption in the large intestine.

B) absorption in the small intestine.

The best food source of iron is
A) whole wheat bread.
B) egg yolk.
C) raisins.
D) liver.

D) liver.

A reduced sense of taste is associated with a deficiency of
A) iron.
B) zinc.
C) chromium.
D) selenium.

B) zinc

A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of
A) copper.
B) magnesium.
C) sodium.
D) iodide.

D) iodide.

Hypertension is defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure at or above ____ mm Hg.
A) 100/50
B) 120/80
C) 140/90
D) 180/100

C) 140/90

In women, bone loss begins around age
A) 20.
B) 25.
C) 30.
D) 35.

C) 30.

Adult men need how much total water intake per day?
A) 2.0 liters
B) 2.7 liters
C) 3.0 liters
D) 3.7 liters

D) 3.7 liters

All of the following are appropriate means of eliminating Cryptosporidium from drinking water except:
A) reverse osmosis
B) boiling the water
C) chlorination
D) using a special filter

C) chlorination

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