Because the human body cannot store excess nitrogen...
ammonia is formed from the excess nitrogen and the liver converts it into urea, which is eventually eliminated by the kidneys.
is an essential fatty acid that must be supplied in the diet.
Regina is trying to cut back on her fat intake to help reduce total calorie intake and promote gradual weight loss. If she follows an 1,800-calorie meal plan and wants to achieve the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range recommendation of total fat being between 20-35% of calories, how many grams of fat per day should she be eating?
40-70 grams of fat per day
AMDR for fat is 20-35% of calories: 1,800 calories X 0.2-0.35 = 360-630 kcal from fat
• 360-630 kcal from fat divided by 9 kcal per gram fat = 40-70 grams fat per day
If a diet does not provide adequate carbohydrate to meet immediate energy needs, the body compensates by altering its metabolism of other nutrients. Insufficient dietary carbohydrate can lead to elevated levels of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are the byproducts of partial breakdown of:
Without adequate carbohydrate, fats do not break down completely but rather form ketone bodies. Production of ketone bodies causes ketosis, a dangerous condition that upsets the body's normal acid-base balance.
The level of serum triglyceride that is considered desirable is ______ milligrams per deciliter of blood.
less than 150
Which organ secretes the major digestive enzymes into the small intestine?
A HIGH QUALITY protein is best described as one that:
contains all of the essential amino acids in the proper amounts and ratio
Which of the following is not a trace mineral as per definition?
have physiological roles that may have important implications for health or physical performance.
Which of the following substances has been advertised for endurance athletes because, theoretically, it would enhance the oxidation of free fatty acids by facilitating their transfer into the mitochondria?
Thiamine is a water soluble vitamin and:
is needed to help convert pyruvate to acetyl CoA.
Which of the following cannot be used to form new glucose in the body?
The greatest total amount of carbohydrate stored in the body is in the form of:
What is the ratio of protein to carbohydrate that should be consumed following endurance exercise in order to enhance glycogen synthesis?
About what percentage of the dietary iron (combined heme and nonheme iron) is absorbed from the digestive tract in the normal American diet?
Approximately how much calcium is found in one glass (8 ounces) of skim milk?
Certain female athletes are at increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia and compromised bone health. Determine whether the scenario listed below increases iron-deficiency anemia risk or osteoporosis risk
increased iron deficiency risk:
monthly menstrual losses, distance running that lead to gastrointestinal bleeding.
increased osteoporosis risk:
cessation of menstruation,
low dietary calcium intake
Which of the following is not a monosaccharide?
is so widely available in foods that no purely dietary deficiency has been reported.
The human body is known to need an adequate supply of _________ different vitamins.
When summarizing the results of studies comparing exercise and the need for minerals, which of the following statements is INCORRECT?
The proper doses of mineral supplements, balanced by a registered dietitian with the individual's regular diet, will increase the physical performance of healthy individuals in endurance contests
Regina's pregnant sister is interested in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two essential fatty acids that can be made from alpha-linolenic (omega-3) acid. She has heard that EPA and DHA are important for cancer prevention, brain health, cardiovascular disease prevention, and immune function. Which food is the best source of EPA + DHA?
The recommended protein intake for an individual trying to gain muscle mass through strength training is ________ grams of protein per kilogram body weight.
Which of the following are considered to be the bad fats?
Saturated and trans fatty acids
The major dietary source of lipids are:
By definition, which of the following is not classified as a major mineral (macromineral)?
Which of the following is true of fructose?
It is absorbed more slowly than glucose
What is the AMDR for daily total fat intake, as a percentage of daily calories?
Pantothenic acid is:
an essential component of coenzyme A (CoA)
What is the most common nutrient-deficiency disorder in the United States?
To improve his overall strength, Anthony has been weight lifting in addition to running. He is now focusing on the nutrient mix of his post-weight lifting recovery snack. Which snack is ideal for recovery after weight-training and why?
A sandwich made with bread and lean turkey is ideal because the carbohydrate/protein mix enhances the muscle-building effect of activity
Thiamin participates in chemical reactions in which carbon dioxide (CO2) is released from a substrate. Which of the following are functions of thiamin? Check all that apply.
Metabolism of carbohydrates
Synthesis of RNA and DNA
Synthesis of neurotransmitters
The female athlete triad refers to:
a female athlete who has a combination of brittle bones, loss of the menstrual cycle, and disordered eating patterns
Which of the following statements concerning mineral deficiencies or excesses is INCORRECT?
If the diet intake is sufficient, minerals are readily absorbed from the intestine
Over the 24-hour period, the rate of muscle glycogen recovery is _____ percent per hour.
Which hormone is released from the pancreas and generally increases the rate of gluconeogenesis in the liver?
Riboflavin is also known as vitamin:
The most practical way to determine if muscles have increased their glycogen stores would be:
to keep an accurate record of your body weight.
One argument against ingesting more vitamins than the amount recommended is:
vitamins may build up in tissues and interfere with some vital physiological processes
Which of the following contains the least amount of calcium?
Since beginning college, Lisa has put on about thirteen pounds. She is learning in her health science class that excess calories contribute to weight gain. One recommendation her instructor made for weight loss is to choose foods that have a low percentage of total calories coming from fat. If a one-half cup serving of her favorite ice cream has 310 calories and 20 grams of fat, what percentage of total calories in the ice cream come from fat?
58% of calories in this food are from fat.
Gabe was reading an article in a muscle magazine that said a particular world-champion body builder regularly eats a dozen raw egg whites per day. From his recent nutrition studies, Gabe surmised that the body builder is at risk for developing which vitamin deficiency and why?
Biotin deficiency because a protein in raw egg whites binds biotin and inhibits its absorption
Which of the following statements regarding Omega-3 fatty acids is correct?
They may be metabolized to produce prostaglandin E, which may stimulate the release of human growth hormone
All of the following are true physiological functions exhibited by protein EXCEPT
it is the major energy source during exercise.
Which of the following statements regarding creatine or creatine supplementation is FALSE?
Currently creatine use by athletes has been prohibited by WADA
Body lipids serve which of the following functions?
They form body structures, help regulate metabolism, and provide a source of energy.
Cholesterol is a component of thyroxine and oxytocin, which have diverse effects in the regulation of human metabolism.
The majority of the phospholipids in the body are used by the liver to produce bile salts.
→ All of the answers are correct
Which of the following statements regarding vitamin deficiency is NOT true?
Subclinical malnutrition always impairs physical performance
Which of the following is true of lipids?
Fatty acids are classified according to the number of carbon atoms each contains and the number of complete chemical bonds that each molecule has
Xerophthalmia is associated with a deficiency of
vitamin A that leads to blindness
When discussing the possible ergogenic effect of specific amino acids, which statement is FALSE?
Glycine is involved in the formation of phosphocreatine and has been recently shown to positively affect physical performance.
Which of the following is true concerning the functions of lipids in the body?
Ketones are metabolic byproducts of excess fatty acid metabolism and are an important energy source during fasting and starvation
Excessive intake of iron can lead to a condition called hemochromatosis, which is damage to which organ in the body?
Which of the following is not classified as a lipid?
Which compound is not found in plant foods?
Which of the following statements concerning carnitine is NOT supported by current research?
Most reviewers believe chronic supplementation will enhance prolonged aerobic endurance performance
A diet of less than 15 mg/day of this nutrient may cause disruption in red blood cells.
The three major monosaccharides are
glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Triglycerides are released from the adipose cells as:
glycerol and free fatty acids
Which of the following are functions of vitamin B-6? Check all that apply.
Coenzyme in amino acid synthesis
correct Synthesis of neurotransmitters
correct Synthesis of hemoglobin and white blood cells
Despite a vigorous training schedule and careful meal planning, Anthony "hit the wall" at mile 12 of his half-marathon and he had to walk the last mile. To what can his inability to finish the race most likely be attributed?
His blood glucose level fell because of depleted liver glycogen
• As blood glucose declines during exercise, so does mental function. This diminished mental ability is referred to as "bonking" or "hitting the wall". The fall in blood glucose is related to depletion of liver glycogen, not muscle glycogen, because liver glycogen is used to maintain blood glucose.
Common table sugar is:
Supplementation with some amino acids has been theorized to decrease the formation of serotonin in the brain and possibly help delay the onset of central nervous system fatigue in prolonged aerobic endurance exercise. Which amino acids are theorized to do this?
leucine, isoleucine, and valine
If daily dietary protein is obtained with a mixture of animal and plant foods, a ratio of animal to plant protein of _________ would be similar to the use of animal protein alone.
Amino acid supplements are advertised to enhance performance in various groups of athletes. Based on the available research data, which of the following statements is FALSE concerning their effectiveness in this regard?
Although not an essential amino acid, research conducted at Old Dominion University has shown inosine to be an effective ergogenic for aerobic endurance events
Levels of calcium in the blood are tightly regulated. When blood levels of calcium start to drop below normal, which of the following physiological responses may take place?
Even though less than 1% of the body's total calcium content is found in the blood, a tightly regulated blood calcium level is essential for many processes, such as muscle contraction and blood clotting. The body uses several mechanisms to maintain a constant level of blood calcium, including release of calcium from bone, increased efficiency of intestinal absorption, and increased retention of calcium by the kidneys. Calcium is not stored in the liver.
The most popularly known method of classification of the major lipoproteins is based on the density of the lipoprotein particle. Which of the following statements is correct based on this method?
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) contain 45-50 percent protein and are associated with apoprotein A
How much carbohydrate per kilogram body weight should be consumed daily in order to restore muscle glycogen levels to normal after intense training?
Following a meal high in simple carbohydrate which of the following is most likely to occur in the next 1-2 hours?
hyperglycemia which stimulates insulin secretion followed by a possible hypoglycemia
As discussed in lecture, estrogen protects bone density by:
Reducing bone resorption
Which hormone secreted during exercise, particularly intense exercise, is the key hormone for mobilizing glucose from the liver and fatty acids from the adipose tissue to provide blood sources of energy to the muscle?
A total cholesterol level of 185 milligrams/deciliter is classified as what category by the National Cholesterol Education Program?
According to the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine, there are no health or performance benefits to consuming a diet containing less than ________ percent energy from fat.
Which of the following statements concerning iron deficiency is INCORRECT?
Twenty percent of the female population has iron-deficiency anemia
The maximal amount of energy that may be derived from exogenous carbohydrate is approximately ________ grams per minute.
Which of the following statements correctly describes minerals?
Minerals may be components of metalloenzymes or exist as electrolytes
Which of the following statements concerning carbohydrate use as an energy source is FALSE?
most athletes should consume large amounts just prior to performance for quick energy
The National Institute of Health recommends a calcium intake of _____ mg/day for those aged 19-50 years.
Which one of the following may affect the amount of iron absorbed into the body?
Small amounts of meat added to grain products enhance iron absorption
If Tomas is a healthy 24-year-old male who weighs 166 pounds, how many grams of protein per day should he have to promote protein equilibrium? (One kilogram = 2.2 pounds.)
60 grams of protein per day
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Amino acids can exist in either branched-chain or straight-chain form. Branched-chain amino acids are used supplementally for burn patients to help expedite healing. All of the following are branched-chain amino acids EXCEPT:
The branched-chain amino acids are isoleucine, leucine, and valine
Which of the following statements regarding fat loading strategies is FALSE?
Carnitine supplementation has been shown to be a very effective dietary strategy to enhance endurance performance, particularly in events such as marathon running
Which vitamin and mineral combination provides the best possible nutritional defense against the development of osteoporosis?
C and phosphorus
Carbohydrate supplementation is beneficial to performance
when substantial amounts of the carbohydrates are consumed a day or two prior to the event.
Excessive iron in children may be associated with which one of the following dangers?
Deaths due to overdoses of iron, obtained by eating large amounts of candy-flavored vitamin tablets with iron
For adults, how many essential amino acids are there?
Which of the following is NOT classified as a macromineral?
The three principal risk factors associated with coronary artery disease are:
high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, and high blood cholesterol
When considering the functions of protein in human nutrition, which of the following is true?
The branched-chain amino acids constitute a significant amount of muscle tissue
During several months of endurance training, all of the following have been noted to occur EXCEPT
there is more reliance on carbohydrate oxidation during submaximal exercise.
Which of the following describes the antioxidant activity of selenium?
Selenium is required for the activity of glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme that chemically converts peroxides into water.
Dietary fats are absorbed into the body in which of the following ways?
Lipids are hydrolyzed into fatty acids, glycerol, cholesterol, and phospholipids with the aid of the emulsifying action of the bile salts
Which hormone is released from the pancreas and generally increases the rate of gluconeogenesis in the liver?
A general recommendation for daily caloric intake for protein is _________ percent.
Blood sugar refers to what molecule circulating in blood?
Which two minerals are thought to assist with the functions of insulin?
chromium and vanadium
Chromium is essential in human nutrition. Which of the following statements is correct when considering chromium's effect on the body?
Chromium potentiates the activity of insulin and may also affect protein metabolism
Research suggests that protein may be a significant source of energy during:
the latter stage of prolonged endurance exercise, when protein could contribute up to 15 percent of the total energy cost.
Dietary iron derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in food
Iron from plant sources, supplements, and animal tissues other than that provided by hemoglobin and myoglobin
Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
Percentage of blood made up of red blood cells
Disorder of iron metabolism that leads to abnormally high iron absorption and deposition of iron in the liver and heart
Increases iron absorption
-combining nonheme sources of iron with meat, fish or poultry.
-adolescent growth spurt
decreases iron absorption
-consuming large doses of zinc
-consuming tea with meals
Nitrate may be found in:
can prevent osteomalacia.
What two tissues in the body store the most carbohydrate?
liver and muscles
allows cells to take in glucose.
What do superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase have in common?
they function as natural, endogenous antioxidant enzymes in the tissues
Which mineral is most important throughout life to assist in maintaining strong bone?
A deficiency of either of these two vitamins produces a similar anemia:
vitamin B12 and folate
If blood glucose levels decrease, gluconeogenesis is a process in the body that produces glucose internally by
converting amino acids to glucose during the glucose-alanine cycle.
Which vitamin may block the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue and thus may decrease a source of potential energy during exercise?
Which of the following B-vitamins is especially important as a coenzyme in fat synthesis?
Which of the following statements concerning protein metabolism and exercise is NOT true?
After exercise, protein balance is at the very most maintained, but is usually negative
Which of the following vitamins may NOT be formed in the body from another nutrient, provitamin or bacteria?
Vitamin D is unique in that it can be obtained by the diet but also is synthesized inside the body when a cholesterol-like substance is activated by sunlight and converted to the prohormone vitamin D. Check all of the organs that participate in vitamin D synthesis as a result of sunlight exposure: Check all that apply.
The skin, liver, and kidney cells that participate in vitamin D synthesis are different from the bone and intestinal cells that are responsive to vitamin D.
Which mineral may be an effective ergogenic aid for runners since it may possibly increase the delivery of oxygen to the muscle cell by increasing the 2, 3-DPG concentration in hemoglobin and facilitating oxygen release from hemoglobin?
Which of the following statements concerning trace minerals is FALSE?
mercury is essential for carbohydrate metabolism
The dietary technique designed to increase the glycogen content in both the liver and the muscles in an attempt to delay the onset of fatigue is referred to as all of the following except
Which of the following contain the most protein?
nuts and seeds
Which of the following vitamins has no UL listed?
Research involving creatine supplementation has shown it to have a positive ergogenic effect on all but which of the following?
Energy metabolism when treadmill running at 50-90 percent of VO2 max
Zinc is found in virtually all tissues in the body and
small amounts of zinc supplements do not appear to pose any major problems to the healthy individual.
The compound CoQ10
facilitates the aerobic generation of ATP as part of the electron transfer system.
Which of the following is not an essential amino acid?
During exercise which of the following carbohydrate solutions is recommended for active individuals?
Gabe's grandfather has a history of heart disease and is on anticoagulant drug therapy. His prescription drugs include Coumadin (warfarin). What dietary precaution should his grandfather be taking?
Avoid any large increases in dark green leafy vegetable intake because vitamin K can reduce effectiveness of anticoagulants and promote blood clots
One reason why carbohydrate is the most important energy food for exercise is that
it is a more efficient fuel than fat.
Which of the following statements concerning the fates of blood glucose is FALSE?
Muscle glycogen may be reconverted directly to blood glucose
Phosphorus is the second most abundant mineral in the body and
its excess does not appear to pose any problems to a healthy individual when used on a short-term basis.
Which of the following is a valid reason for vitamin supplementation?
Antibiotics kill intestinal bacteria and decrease the production of certain vitamins
What is the recommended amount of carbohydrate that should be consumed 4 hours prior to exercise for an individual participating in intense training?
4-5 g/kg body weight
Which of the following is true when discussing the possible ergogenic effect of specific amino acids?
Although some early research indicated BCAA supplementation improved performance in marathon running performance of "slower" runners, most subsequent research it is not an effective ergogenic aid
Which of the following is NOT true of vitamin A?
The adult female RDA value is the equivalent of 6 milligrams of retinol or 1 milligram of betacarotene
In the female athlete triad, hormonal changes interfere with the proper use of which nutrient that leads to certain health problems?
Lipids are a unique nutrient group, differing significantly from carbohydrates and proteins. Which of the following statements is not correct about lipids?
Phospholipids are the most abundant type of lipids found in the body and in foods.
Studies have shown that endurance trained athletes
have an increased muscle triglyceride content.
The apoproteins A (apo A) are associated with which type lipoprotein?
Carbohydrate loading involves an increase in carbohydrate intake, which also leads to an increase in muscle storage of which of the following?
Most of the B vitamins function in human metabolism as
Which of the following statements relative to carbohydrate loading is false?
the major advantage of carbohydrate loading is the increased storage of glycogen in the adipose cells for use during exercise
Calcium represents almost 2 percent of the body weight,
and the physiological functions take precedence over the formation of bone tissue.
Which lipoprotein is theorized to transport cholesterol from the periphery to the liver for excretion (reverse cholesterol transport)?
Fats may be a significant source of energy during exercise of low intensity and long duration. What is the main form of fats that are used for energy production during low-intensity exercise?
free fatty acids from the adipose cells and muscle cells
Which of the following types of foods has the lowest glycemic index?
Which of the following statements relative to the intake of carbohydrates and physical performance is FALSE?
if consumed during exercise, it takes approximately 60-90 minutes for the carbohydrate to find its way into the muscle and be used as an energy source
The B vitamins play major roles in:
facilitating energy production and making red blood cells
The process involving the formation of glucose from protein in the body is known as:
gluconeogenesis, (which I believe is wrong... but oh, well)
Although more research is needed, which of the following carbohydrate substrates have been shown to have the potential for ergogenic effects?
Dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate.
Which of the following statements about calcium supplements is true?
Supplement tablets should be taken with a meal
Which of the following statements regarding fluoride is INCORRECT?
Excess fluoride strengthens the outer tooth enamel and reduces dental caries
Excessive intake of this water-soluble vitamin may impair liver function.
Which of the following is true of the vitamin known as niacin?
Niacin plays a role in energy metabolism
Reasonable estimates suggest that athletes who want to consume the maximal amount of exogenous carbohydrate that may be oxidized during exercise may use approximately how many grams per hour of the ingested glucose?
Which of the following statements discussing copper's effect on the human body is INCORRECT?
Copper is needed for the absorption of calcium from the intestinal tract
Which nutrients consumed in excess may pose a risk of kidney damage and other soft tissues such as the blood vessels?
calcium and vitamin D
The form by which cholesterol is transported in your blood may be related to the development of atherosclerosis. In general,
high levels of high-density lipoproteins, which act in a process known as reverse cholesterol transport, appear to lower the chances of developing atherosclerosis.
Free radicals are formed in the __________, and when you exercise, the increased use of ________ causes a(n) _____________ in free radicals.
electron transport system--oxygen--increase
The level of total cholesterol that represents the borderline/high risk category is _________ milligrams per deciliter of blood.
Research suggests that creatine supplementation is MOST likely to enhance performance in which of the following types of physical performance tasks?
high intensity exercise lasting 6-30 seconds
Which of the following statements comparing animal and plant protein is INCORRECT?
Proteins usually exist in smaller concentrations in plant foods, thus the quality of amino acids found in plants is inferior to those obtained from animals
HMB supplementation appears to offer the greatest benefit to:
resistance trained individuals
During anaerobic cell metabolism, athletes sometimes complain of short-term muscle fatigue. What can be causing this fatigue? Check all that apply:
Lactic acid accumulating in the muscle cells increases acidity of the muscle, which inhibits the activity of some enzymes, causing fatigue.
correct Acidity in muscle cells increases potassium loss from muscles, causing fatigue.
**Acidity inhibits the activities of key enzymes in the muscle cells, slowing anaerobic ATP production and causing short-term fatigue. The acidity also leads to a net potassium loss from muscle cells, providing another cause of fatigue. An advantage of anaerobic glucose breakdown is that it is the fastest way to resupply ATP, other than PCr breakdown. It therefore provides most of the energy needed for events that require a quick burst of energy, ranging from about 30 seconds to 2 minutes.
Which of the following is true for exercise when fat is the energy source?
During rest, most of the energy needs of the body are met by the supply of plasma FFA to the cells.
incorrect Hormones, such as epinephrine, are secreted during exercise, activate HSL, and these stimulate the release of FFA into the blood.
During high-intensity exercise, 75 percent of the total energy cost is derived from carbohydrates, while the other 25 percent or less is derived from fat.
→ All of the answers are correct.