How many bones make up the cranium?
What do the bones of the cranium enclose?
Only the brain
What bones make up the cranium?
1 Frontal bone, 2 Parietal bones, 2 Temporal bones, 1 Occipital bone, 1 Sphenoid bone, and 1 Ethmoid bone
What does the frontal bone make up?
The forehead and roof of orbitals
What are the names of the frontal bones?
The Supraorbital foramen, Lacrimal fossa, and the supraorbital margin
What is the job of the lacrimal fossa and what does it house?
It lubricates the surface of the eye and houses the tear ducts
What is the supraorbital margin an indication of and what does it form?
It marks the end of the frontal bone and forms the top of the eye sockets
What surfaces are the parietal bones comprised of?
Superior and Lateral
Name the componants of the parietal bones.
The Sagittal suture, Coronal suture, Superior line and Inferior line
Where does the sagittal suture run to?
the midline runs from the lambdoidal suture to the coronal suture
What does the anterior coronal suture separate?
the frontal bone from the parietal bones
What is the job of the superior and temporal lines?
To attach the temporalis muscles
What are the temporalis muscles responsible for?
For closing the mouth
What do the temporal bones contribute to?
The lateral and inferior walls, zygomatic arches of the cheek, and are the only articulation with mandible
What do the temporal bones provide protection for?
The sensory organs of the inner ear
What are the components of the temporal bone?
The Squamosal suture, Zygomatic process of temporal bone, Mandibular fossa, External auditory meatus, Styloid process, Mastoid process, Jugular foramen, Carotid canal, and Internal acoustic foramen
What is the squamosal suture a boundary for?
The temporal and parietal bones
What does the zygomatic process of the temporal bone connect to and what does it form?
The temporal process of the zygomatic bone which form the zygomatic bone or "cheek bone"
What is job of the madibular fossa?
articulation of the mandible
What does the styloid process provide attachment for?
The ligaments that support the the hyoid bone and muscles for the tongue, pharynx, and larynx
What does the mastoid process provide attachment for?
The muscles that attach the head
What vein passes through the jugular foramen?
The Jugular vein
What major artery penetrates the entrance of the carotid canal?
The Internal carotid artery
Whats the function of the internal acoustic foramen?
It carries blood vessels and nerves to the inner ear
What does the occipital bone contribute to on the cranium?
The posterior, lateral, and superior surfaces
What are the components of the occipital region?
The Lambdoidal suture, Foramen magnum, Occipital condyles, and external occipital protuberance
What does the lambdoidal suture separate?
the occipital bone from the parietal bones
What does the foramen magnum connect?
The cranial cavity to the spinal cavity
What does the occipital condyles articulate with?
The first vertebrate (Atlas)
What is the external occipital protuberance?
its a midline bump located at the end of the external occipital crest
Where is the external occipital crest located?
its a posterior extension from the foramen magnum
What are the external occipital crest and external occipital protuberance attachment sites for?
The muscles for stabilization of the head
What is the sphenoid bone responsible for articulation of?
Every other cranial bone
What is the function of the sphenoid?
It acts as a bridge for uniting the facial and cranial bones
What are the components in the sphenoid region?
The Greater wings, Sella turcica, Hypohyseal fossa, Lesser wings, Optic foramen, and Foramen ovale
Where are the cranial wings located?
Theyre extended across the cranial vault
What is the sella turcica?
Its a bony enclosure of the pituitary gland
What is the hypohyseal fossa?
Its a depression that houses the pituitary gland?
What is the optic foramen?
Its a passageway for the optic nerve
Whats the job of the foramen ovale?
to serve as a passageway for blood vessels
What parts of the cranium does the ethmoid bone make up?
A part of the orbital wall, anteromedial floor of the cranium, roof of the nasal cavity, and part of the nasal septum
What are the components of the ethmoid region?
The Crista galli, cribiform complex, perpendicular plate, and lateral masses
What is the crista galli?
its a prominent ridge that attaches to a membrane that stabilizes the brains position
Where is the location of the cribiform complex (cribiform plate)?
Its the superior surface of the ethmoid bone that is perforated by the cribiform foramina.
What does the cribiform complex allow?
A passageway to olefactory nerves
What ethmoidal bone forms the nasal septum?
The perpendicular plate
What do the lateral masses contain?
The superior and middle nasal concha
What is the function of the lateral masses?
The slowing of air movement, warming, humidification, and dust removal
What are the components of the facial bones?
1 mandible, 2 maxillae, 2 palatine bones, 2 zygomatic bones, 2 lacrimal bones, 2 nasal bones, 1 vomer, and nasal conchae
What does the mandible form?
The lower jaw, body, angle, and ramus
What are the components of the mandible?
The Mandibular condyle, Mandibular notch, Coronoid process, Mental foramen, Temperomandibular joint (TMJ), and Alveolar part
What does the mandibular condyle articulate with?
The Temporal bone
Whats the name of the depression that lies between the condylar and coronoid process?
The Mandibular notch
What muscle is inserted in the coronoid process?
The Temporalis muscle
Where are the mental foramina located?
The Chin or Mentis
What is the job of the nerves that pass through the mental foramina?
They carry information from the lips and chin back to the brain
What is the temperomandibular joint?
Its a very moveable component of the facial bones that can sometimes be dislocated
What is the name of a part of the facial bones thats a thickened area which contains the alveoli and roots of the teeth?
The Alveolar part (margin)
Which of the facial bones are the largest?
What doe the maxillae form?
The Upper jaw
What do the maxillae articulate with?
all the other facial bones except the mandible
What are the palatine processes?
The Bony roof of the mouth
What is the job of the orbital rim?
It Provides protection for the eye
What is the job of the infra-orbital foramen?
It Provides a means of exit for sensory nerves in the face
What are the L-Shaped facial bones that articulate with the maxillae to complete the posterior portion of the bony palate?
The Palatine bones
What general area of the facial bones does the zygomatic bones form?
The lateral rim of the orbit
What are the components of the zygomatic bone?
The Temporal process of zygomatic bone and Center piece of zygomatic arch
What does the temporal process of the zygomatic bone aid in?
The Formation of the cheek
Where are the lacrimal bones located?
The medial portion of the orbit
What are the smallest bones in the skull?
The Lacrimal bones
What do the lacrimal bones articulate with?
The Frontal bone, Maxilla, and Ethmoid bone
The lacrimal bone and maxilla for to make the:
The Nasolacrimal Canal
What does the nasolacrimal canal enclose?
The tear duct
What does the nasolacrimal canal pass toward?
The nasal cavity
what doe the nasal bones articulate with?
The Frontal bone
Where is the vomer?
On the inferior portion of the nasal septum
What does the vomer articulate with?
Both the maxillae and palatine bones along the midline
Where are the superior and middle nasal conchae located?
On lateral masses of the ethmoid bone
Other than the superior and middle nasal conchae, what general location are the other nasal conchae located?
How many bones does the skull contain?
What two categories of bones is the skull comprised of?
The cranium, facial bones, paranasal sinuses, hyoid bone, and orbit
Whats the name for air spaces connected to the nasal cavities that act as extensions of the nasal cavity?
The paranasal sinuses
Name the four kinds of paranasal sinuses.
The frontal and sphenoidal sinuses, the ethmoidal air cells, and the maxillary sinuses
What is the hyoid bone suspended by?
The stylohyoid ligament
What bones does the hyoid bone articulate with?
None, its not in any direct contact with any other bone
What is the hyoid bone the base of?
Several muscles involved in the movement of the tongue and larynx
Since all of the bones in the fetal skull havent fused yet, what are the embryonic bones connected by?
By fibrous connective tissue called fontanels
Why is it so important for a fetal skull to not be fused together at birth?
It allows for rapid growth of the brain and allows the skull to be distorted during delivery without being damaged
What are the frontal fontanels intersections for?
The frontal, sagittal, and coronal sutures
What are the occipital fontanels interesection for?
The lambdoid and sagittal sutures
What is the sphenoid fontanel between?
The squamous and coronal sutures
What is the mastoid fontanel between?
The squamous and lambdoid sutures
What is another name for the frontal fontanels?
The anterior fontanels
What is another name for the Occipital fontanels?
The posterior fontanels
What is another name for the sphenoid fontanels?
The anterolateral fontanels
What is another name for the mastoid fontanels?
The posterolateral fontanels
How many bones are in the vertebral column?
Whats the function of the vertebral column?
To bear the bodies weight and protect the spinal cord
Why is it important for the spine to be curved?
For bringing the weight closer to the bodies axis
Name the four types of spinal curves.
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, and Sacral
What two spinal curves are categorized as primary or accomodation curvatures?
The thoracic and lumbar curves
What spinal curvatures are categorized as secondary or compensation curvatures?
The lumbar and cervical curves
What part of the vertebra is the anterior portion responsible for bearing the weight and articulates with neighbors separated by intervertebral discs?
What does the vertebral arch form?
The lateral and posterior margins of the vertebral foramen
What does the vertebral arch surround?
The spinal cord
Name the components of the vertebral foramen.
the pedicles, laminae, and body
On the vertebral foramen what are the pedicles?
On the vertebral foramen what are the laminae?
on the vertebral foramen what are the bodys?
Name the components of a typical vertebra.
The body, vertebral foramen, intervertebral foramen, transverse process, spinous process, and superior and inferior articular surfaces
What do the intervertebral foramen provide?
A passageway for nerves
Where is the transverse process?
It extends from the pedicle/lamina junction
What is the function of the transverse process?
It provides attachement for muscles and articulates with the ribs
Where does the spinous process project?
Where do the superior and inferior articular surfaces arise from?
The pedicle/lamina junction
What are intervertebral discs comprised of?
FIbrous cartilage and elastic connective tissue ligaments
How many cervical vertebrae are there?
What is the name of the first cervical vertebra?
What is the name of the second cervical vertebra?
What important component is found in the second cervical vertebra?
The odontoid process
What does the odontoid process allow?
Rotation of the head
What vertebrae are responsible for articulation of the rib?
The thoracic vertebrae
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
How many lumbar vertebrae are there?
What is the sacrum comprised of?
5 fused vertebrae
How old is a person by the time the bones in the sacrum have fused?
What are the three main components of the sacrum?
The superior articular surface, transverse lines of fusion, and the sacral foramina
What is the coccyx comprised of?
3 to 5 fused vertebrae
What is the name of the flat bone that forms in the anterior midline of the thoracic wall?
What are the components of the sternum?
The manubrium, body, and xyphoid process
Where is the jugular notch located?
At the superior end of the manubrium
What happens to the sternum as you move inferiorly?
the body tapers off
What is formed as the body of the sternum tapers off?
The sternal angle
what are the main components of the ribs?
The head, tubercle, angle, and body
What is the body of the ribs comprised of?
The superior surface and the costal groove
What is the angle of the ribs an indication of?
The site where the tubular body or shaft, begins curving towards the sternum
How does the tubercle project?
What does the inferior portion of the tubercle on the ribs contain?
An articular facet that contacts the transverse process of the thoracic vertebra
What is another name of the body of a rib?
What is another name for the head of the ribs?