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John Quincy Adams

6th president of the United States. A strong advocate of national finance and improvement, "corrupt bargain" of 1824

Henry Clay

"The Great Compromiser"

John C. Calhoun

7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century; was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification

Andrew Jackson

(1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, trail of tears,

Electoral College

A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president

Corrupt Bargain

Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.

Tariff of 1824

Increased tariff significantly to protect wool manufacturers

Tariff of 1828

A protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress that came to be known as the "Tariff of Abominations"

The South Carolina Exposition

A pamphlet by John C. Calhoun that denounced the high tariff as unconstitutional

National Republicans

supporters of a strong central government who favored road building and supported the Bank of the United States to shape the nation's economy; many were farmers or merchants

Democratic Republicans

Party of Andrew Jackson and the common man

Spoils System

A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.

Kitchen Cabinet

A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet.

John Eaton and Peggy O'Neale

The wives of the Cabinet members snubbed Mrs. Eaton socially, which angered President Jackson. He tried unsuccessfully to coerce them. Eventually, and partly for this reason, he almost completely reorganized his Cabinet, an event referred to as the Petticoat affair.

Martin Van Buren

(1837-1841) Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt.

Robert Hayne

Believed that states should have more rights. He was from South Carolina. He debated Daniel Webster about the doctrine of states rights.

Daniel Webster

He was a major representative of the North in pre-Civil War Senate debates, just as Sen. John C. Calhoun was the representative of the South in that time.

Sectionalism

Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conflict.

Nationalism

A sense of unity binding the people of a state together

Tariff of 1832

A tariff imposed by Jackson which was unpopular in the South; South Carolina nullified it,

Tariff of 1833

Stated that import taxes would gradually decrease by about 10% over a period of eight years.

Nullification Crisis

A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.

Force Bill "Bloody Bill"

authorized military to enforce tariff

Bank of the United States

Powerful National Bank

Nicholas Biddle

- president of the Bank of the United States; known for bribes and corruption

Bank War

Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power and was too rich. Vetoed the 2nd Bank charter and withdrew gov't money from the US Banks and put it into "pet banks"

Wildcat Banks

banks in west who foreclosed on countless farms, causing westerners to hate national bank.

Anti-Masonic Party

(1832) - 1st third party in the presidential elections - against the Mason order of which Andrew Jackson was a part of - anti-Jackson

Specie Circular

..., Issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it The panic of 1837 followed.

Pet Banks

A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits

"five civilized tribes"

Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "

John Marshall

American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835)

Trail of Tears

(AJ) , The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.

Assimilation

A policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs.

Indian Removal Act

(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River

The Bureau of Indian Affairs

this was created by Congress to oversee federal policy toward American Indians

Stephen Austin

American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico

Texas

A region that caused controversy after it won independence from Mexico. Northerners feared it would be admitted as a slave state and upset the balance of power. It finally became a slave state in 1845.

Santa Anna

Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and lost

Battle of the Alamo

1836 battle during the Texas Revolution that resulted in the massacre of about 200 Americans who were defending this for;

San Jacinto

A surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836.Santa Anna was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence.

Davy Crockett

American pioneer who was killed at the Alamo

Jim Bowie

United States pioneer and hero of the Texas revolt against Mexico, one of the men present at the Alamo; was famous for carrying around a big knife, fell off the battlements during the siege and spent much of the siege in the infirmary

Colonel W. B. Travis

Leader of Texans at the Alamo

Whigs

conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists.

William Henry Harrison

(1841), was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office.

Panic of 1837

Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.

Popular Sovereignty

A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.

Independent Treasury

President Van Buren's plan to keep government funds in its own vaults and do business entirely in hard money rather than keep them in depostits within shaky banks.

Two Party System

An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in national elections.

John Tyler

"His Accidency." The first VP to become President due to the death of the President. He assumed the Presidency in 1841 following the death of William Henry Harrison.

Party Platforms

official statements of beliefs, values, and policy positions that national party conventions issue

Immigration

Migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)

Irish

Came to America because of a terrible potato shortage or famine

German

Came to the US because it presented to new ideas and areas of culture now known today.

Know-Nothing Party

A party which pushed for political action against these newcomers. They displayed the feelings of America regarding newcomers that were different and therefore, the double standard of the country.

Samuel Slater

"Father of the Factory System" in America; escaped Britain with the memorized plans for the textile machinery; put into operation the first spinning cotton thread in 1791.

Eli Whitney

An American inventor who developed the cotton gin.

Cotton Gin

A machine for cleaning the seeds from cotton fibers, invented by Eli Whitney in 1793

Interchangeable Parts

1799-1800 - Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus interchangeable.

Samuel F. B. Morse

applied scientists' discoveries of electricity and magnetism to develop the telegraph

"Cult of domesticity"

idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands

Cyrus McCormick

(1809-1884) American inventor and industrialist, he invented the mechanical reaper and harvesting machine that quickly cut down wheat.

John Deere

American blacksmith that was responsible for inventing the steel plow.

National Road

A federally funded road, stretching from Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois

Robert Fulton

American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)

Erie Canal

"Clinton's Big Ditch" that transformed transportation and economic life across the Great Lakes region from Buffalo to Chicago

DeWitt Clinton

Governor of New York who started the Erie Canal project.

Railroads

Were essential to westward expansion because they made it easier to travel to and live in the west

Pony Express

A Mail carrying service; ran from 1860-1861; was established to carry mail speedily along the 2000 miles from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California; they could make the trek in 10 days.

Unitarians

believed God existed in only one person and not in the holy trinity. They focused more on the essential goodness of human nature rather than its vileness and pictured God as a loving father

Second Great Awakening

A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.

Charles Grandison Finney

An evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time (spoke in New York City). He also made the "anxious bench" for sinners to pray and was was against slavery and alcohol.

Joseph Smith

Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel.

Mormons

founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT

Horace Mann

United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)

Noah Webster

American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.

William H. McGuffey

American professor and college president who is best known for writing the McGuffey Readers, one of the nation's first and most widely used series of textbooks.

Emma Willard

Early supporter of women's education, in 1818. She published Plan for Improving Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. 1821, she opened her own girls' school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.

Oberlin College

First integrated and co- educational college.

Dorothea Dix

A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada.

American Temperance Society

An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem.

Lucretia Mott

A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848

Elizabeth Candy Stanton

Leading feminist who wrote the "Declaration of Sentiments" in 1848 and pushed for women's suffrage.

Susan B. Anthony

(1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Candy Stanton in 1869.

Seneca Falls Convention

(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written

Oneida Community

A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.

Shakers

1840s; one of the first religious communal movements; kept men and women separate; failed due to lack of recruits

Hudson River School

Founded by Thomas Cole, first native school of landscape painting in the U.S.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River

Washington Irving

American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).

James Fenimore Cooper

American novelist who is best remembered for his novels of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans (1826).

Ralph Waldo Emerson

American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.

Henry David Thoreau

American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support the Mexican War.

Walt Whitman

American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass.

Transcendentalism

A nineteenth-century movement in the Romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet that was influenced somewhat by the transcendentalism occurring at the time. He was important in building the status of American literature. wrote "Paul Revere's Ride"

Louisa May Alcott

American writer and reformer best known for her largely autobiographical novel Little Women (1868-1869).

Emily Dickinson

"Because I could not stop for Death" American Transcendentalist poet. Notable for her cynicism

Edgar Allen Poe

(1809-1849). Orphaned at young age. Was an American poet, short-story writer, editor and literary critic, and is considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre. Failing at suicide, began drinking. Died in Baltimore shortly after being found drunk in a gutter., The Raven, The Fall of The House of Usher, The Cask of Amontillado, Annabel Lee

Herman Melville

American writer whose experiences at sea provided the factual basis of Moby-Dick (1851), considered among the greatest American novels

George Bancroft

"Father of American History" who helped found the Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845 as secretary of the navy; published a superpatriotic history of the US to 1789 that grew out of vast research in Europe and America

Brigham Young

A Mormon leader that led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846.

Worcester v. Georgia

Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it

Alexis de Tocqueville

French liberal politician who observed the evolution of American political thought, customs and social interaction in the 1830's. His book Democracy in America is still considered one the most accurate primary sources on American culture.

Democracy in America

Classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville on the United States in the 1830s and its strengths and weaknesses such as the tyranny of the majority It explained why republicanism succeeded in the U.S. and failed elsewhere.

Nullification

A state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional (SC Nullies)

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