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Hyperinflation of 1923

rapid devaluation of a currency that reduces its buying power overnight. happened because of German government printing more money causing economic crisis. the low middle class to poor were impacted most. professionals and small bussiness owners struggled due to new German Republic ideals.

Gustav Stresemann

Assumed leadership of Germany in August 1923. He called off passive resistance in the Ruhr and in October agreed in principle to pay preparations but ask for a re-examination of Germany's ability to pay.

Maginot Line

Line of defense built by France to protect against German invasion. Stretched from Belgium to Switzerland.

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another

Dawes Plan

1924. A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.

Nuremberg Laws

(1929) Schedule that set limits to Germany's reparation payments and reduced the agreed-on time for occupation of the Ruhr.

Leon Trotsky

Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army

New Economic Policy

Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans.

Comintern

was an international Communist organization founded in Moscow in March 1919. The International intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State."

Benito Mussolini

(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.

Weimar Republic

Was the democratic government which ruled over Germany form 1919 to 1933. Was Germany's first democracy and it failed miserably. It had leaders such as Stresseman and Hindenburg.

Adolf Hitler

Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich (1933-1945). His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kampf (1925-1927), attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. Hitler's pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland (1939) and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent (1945).

Heinrich Himmler

German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1945)

Nuremberg Laws

Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.

collectivization

Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.

facism

A new, militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader

Great Purge

The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.

Kristallnacht

"Night of Broken Glass"; November 9-10, 1938; Day Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish businesses, homes, and synagogues across Germany killing and injuring hundreds of Jews and arresting around 30,000

League of Nations

A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.

Lebensraum

The "living space" that Nazis believed they needed, which justified their plan to expand into Eastern Europe and Russia.

March on Rome

A strike "led" by Mussolini (who was no where to be found during this March) in which 30,000 or so Blackshirts marched to Rome and Mussolini was legally put into power

Nazism

The doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. The National Socialist German Workers Party, otherwise known as the Nazi Party. Nazism was advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany.

Popular Front

An alliance between the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals formed for the May 1936 French elections. It was largely successful, increasing the Communists in parliament from 10 to 72, and the Socials up to 146, making them the largest party in France.

socialism in one country

Joseph Stalin's concept of Russian communism based solely on the Soviet Union rather than the Leninist concept of international revolution; by cutting off the Soviet Union from other economies, the USSR avoided worst consequences of the Great Depression.

spirit of Locarno

a series of treaties that were signed in Locarno, Switzerland that settled Germany's borders with France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. After Germany and the Soviet Union signed these, they were able to join the League of Nations.

Third Reich

The Third Republic of Germany which began Hitler's rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945

Treaty of Rapallo

A treaty signed in 1922 between Germany and the USSR. This was a treaty of mutual assistance that allowed the Germans to develop weapons in violation of the Versailles Treaty.

Picasso's view of western civilization as presented in Guernica

depicted the brutality and horror of war.

After the United States played decisive roles in World War I and the peace negotiations, it

retreated to a position of selective involvement.

As a result of World War I, Germany suffered

the loss of Alsace and Lorraine.

Before the Third Reich, Weimar Germany

secretly re-armed, violating the Versailles Treaty.

The Soviet Union was, in reality, governed by

the Politburo(communist executive committee)

The person in charge of implementing the New Economic Policy was

Nikolai Bukharin.

Which of the following statements concerning women in the Soviet Union is accurate?

The reforms gained by women in 1917 were threatened by the 1930s.

Benito Mussolini's popularity plummeted because of his inability to

initiate effective social programs.

The result of Mussolini's invasion of Ethiopia was that

he succeeded in proclaiming Ethiopia an Italian territory

What was the outcome of the Munich Beer Hall Putsch?

Hitler was jailed for his part in the unsuccessful attempt to seize the local government.

The western democracies of the 1930s responded to the challenge of the Great Depression by

taking small steps to alleviate its effects.

Who was the Socialist leader of the French Popular Front?

Léon Blum

The economic policies of John Maynard Keynes suggested

higher government spending to stimulate consumer demand.

Which of the following nations aligned itself with the Popular Front and the republic in Spain?

the Soviet Union

Walter Gropius' architectural movement in 1919 was called

Bauhaus.

The opponents of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia were called

Whites.

Economic necessity forced Lenin to back away from strict communist ideology with the announcement of 1921's

New Economic Policy.

German coal miners' refusal to work towards French war reparations led, in part, to

hyperinflation of the German economy.

The biggest change affecting the lives of ordinary women was the

acceptance of birth control.

The Lateran Accords of 1929 solidified relations between Mussolini and

the Catholic Church.

Young Plan

1929: another way for germans to try to pay back reparations that was much less severe

Fascism core element 1: Anti Communism

Radical(therefore left wing)
wants to change society
wants to create NEW, totally UNIFIED state

Fascism core element 2: Belief in MYTH of natural or ethnic revival

Focus on mythical past(therefore rightwing too)
Medieval German Empire(Reich)
Crushed ideas that stood in way of revival

Fascism core element 3: Idea of the nation in crisis

The nation is superior to everything(extreme nationalism)
It needs to be saved b/c there is a crisis(real or percieved)

What attracted people to fascism?: Hatred of Versailles

Italy: felt snubbed by britan, france, usa,

germany: lost colonies, were held responsible

Attraction to fascism: democracy

hatred of democracy associated w/ versailes(esp in germany)

Attraction to fascism: Fear of Bolshevism

Russian rev of 1917, anti nationialistic. Anti-capitalistic

Attraction to fascism: anti-semitism

applies to germany primarily

Attraction to fascism: Economic problems

hyperinflation of 1923
1929 stock market crash

Role of Women in Nazi Germany was

to produce racially pure babies like spartan women. Got a bronze medal for 5 children, silver for 7, gold for 9

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