driving while black or brown-racial profiling has been ruled illegal by the courts and is considered improper police practice by law enforcement officers & agencies
National Oraganization of Black Law Enforcement Executives.
any police initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity or national origin rather than on the behavior of an individual or on information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being or having been, engaged in criminal activity
A police officer may briefly detain a person for questioning or request identification only if the officer has a _______________ ________________that the person's behavior is related to criminal activity
an incident in which an officer is lawfully attempting to detain, apprehend,or otherwise be on the lookout fo rone or more specific suspects who have been identified or described in part by national or ethnic origin, gender or race is called a suspect-specific incident
al-jihad or jihad
struggle (literal translation of Arabic) the term has also been sued by some to mean "holy war" against infidels or nonbelievers
Professional traffic stops involve 4 key elements, what are they?
1) organizational/agency policy 2) officer training 3) data collection 4) accountability/supervision
agencies must develop a well-structured policy concerning professional traffic stops, outlining the conduct of officers & the prohibition of discriminatory practices
agencies should include a compononet on racial profiling into existing in-service training programs. Special workshop discussions on the issue of racial profiling can also be scheduled
agencies must collect traffic stop data when the situtation in the community served indicates that there is a concern about police bias
law enforcement supervisors & managers must hold officers accountable for adhering to the policy