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Adhesion

abnormal growing together of two surfaces that are normally separated. This may occur after abdominal surgery; surgical treatment called adhesiolysis or adhesiotomy.

Anal

Pertaining to the anus

Anastomosis

an opening created by surgically joining two structures, such as blood vessels or bowel segments

Anorexia nervosa

eating disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea in females, and abnormal fear of becoming obese. It occurs primarily in adolescents and young adults.

Appendectomy

excision of the appendix

Aphagia

without swallowing (inability to)

Ascities

abnormal collection of fluid in the peritoneal cavity

Barium enema (BE)

series of radiographic images taken of the large intestine after the contrast agent barium has been administered rectally

Cholangioma

tumor of the bile duct

Cholecystisis

inflammation of the gall bladder

Cholecystogram

x-ray of the gallbladder

Colonoscopy

visual examination of the colon

Colonstomy

brings part of the large intestine out through the abdominal wall

Chrohn Disease

chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract usually affecting the ileum and colon. Characterized by cobblestone ulcerations and the formation of scar tissue that may lead to intestinal obstruction.

Diverticulitis

inflammation of the diverticulum

Dysentery

disorder that involves inflammation of the intestine (usually the large intestine) associated with diarrhea and abdominal pain

Dyspepsia

difficult digestion (often used to describe GI systems such as abdominal pain and bloating)

Dysphagia

difficult swallowing

Flatus

gas in the digestive tract or expelled through the anus

Gastic lavage

washing out of the stomach

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

the abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus, causing heartburn and the gradual breakdown of the mucous barrier of the esophagus

Gastroscope

instrument used for visual examination of the stomach

Gavage

force feeding

Gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

Hematemesis

vomiting of blood

Hemicolectomy

excision of half the colon

Hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

Hepatoma

tumor of the liver

Ileus

obstruction of the intestine, often caused by failure of peristalsis

Ileostomy

creation of artificial opening into the ileum (through the abdominal wall creating a stoma, a mouthlike opening on the abdominal wall)

Laparoscopy

visual examination of the abdominal cavity

Palate

separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity

Palatitis

inflammation of the palate

Pancreas

produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food and secretes insulin for carbohydrate metabolism

Peristalsis

involuntary wavelike contractions that propel food along the digestive tract

Peritoneal

pertaining to the peritoneum

Polyp

small growth

Reflux

abnormal backward flow: in esophageal reflex the stomach contents flow back into the esophagus

Sialolith

stone in the salivary gland

Sublingual

pertaining to under the tongue

Upper GI

upper gastrointestinal

Volvulus

twisting or kinking of the intestines, causing intestinal obstruction

hemi-

half

-pepsia

digestion

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