Biology Terminology Quiz 3

27 terms by akemrey 

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Cell

The basic unit of structure and function in all living things

Eukaryote

An organism whose cells contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles; examples include animals, plants, protists, fungi

Prokaryote

A unicellular organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles; examples are archaea and bacteria

Unicellular

Of only a single cell

Multicellular

Of more than one cell

Animal Cell

A cell that lacks chloroplasts, a cell wall, and a large, central vacuole

Plant Cell

A type of cell characterized by a rigid cell wall and the presence of many chloroplasts

Golgi Body

An organelle that receives proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell

Cell Membrane

A thin, phospholipid bilayer that surrounds a cell and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment, regulating what comes into and goes out of the cell

Cell Wall

A strong, rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants, algae, and some other organisms

Vacuole

A membrane-bound, sac-like organelle inside a cell (especially plant cells) that stores materials such as water and proteins for later use

Chloroplast

An organelle found mainly in plants and algae that absorbs energy from sunlight and converts it to chemical energy (photosynthesis)

Nucleus

A prominent organelle that contains the cell's genetic information (DNA) and regulates the cell's activities

Nucleolus

A small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins

Mitochondria

Long, rodlike organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy through cellular respiration

Ribosome

Small and spherical organelles that are the site of protein synthesis

Lysosome

A membrane-bound organelle that is filled with enzymes necessary to break down certain materials in the cell

Smooth ER

The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes

Rough ER

The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is dotted with ribosomes

Endoplasmic Reticulum

A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another

Hydrophilic

Having a strong affinity for water; attracting water molecules

Hydrophobic

Having an aversion towards water; repelling water molecules

Chromatin

The combination of DNA and protein molecules that make up the genetic material in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell; appear long and thin

Chromosome

A threadlike structure found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that contains hereditary information

Centriole

A tiny structure located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope that organizes the mitotic spindle fibers during cell reproductions

Cytoskeleton

A network of long protein strands in the cytoplasm that helps to keep the cell's shape and to aid in movement

Organelle

A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell; literally means "little organ"

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