What problems were the Abbasid facing from Shi'a opposition?
- revolts and assassination attempts
What problem continued to go on even after the death of Al-Mahdi
-Arguing about who will the successor
Who did Harun al-Rashid become heavily dependent upon during his reign?
- a family of persian advisors
what problems began surfacing in the royal court of the Muslim Empire that was very similar to problems China felt during the Han Dynasty?
- advisers got more and more powerful; people on the thrown turned into figure heads
What occured after Harun's death?
-several full scale civil wars over succession
What became the solution to potential heirs to the Muslim Empire in regards to civil war?
-build personal armies
How did slave mercenaries play a role in the decline of the Abbasids?
- 846 c.e. slave mercenaries murdered the reigning caliph
-mercenaries became a major force for social unrest.
List the three causes for the Muslim Empire's treasure have on Muslim people?
- constant civil violence
- construction of public works
- the armies needed more money
What affect did the low funds in the treasury have on Muslim people?
-people had to pay taxes
- great irrigation works needed for agriculture broke down and in some areas collapsed entirely.
-peasants perished due to famine, flood, or violent assaults
- others fled to wilderness areas
- some formed bandit gangs
What two things become common practices in gender relations during the Abbasid era?
- the harem
- women wearing a veil.
What is a harem?
- wives and slaves are confined to a certain part of the home
How were female slaves treated in comparison to freeborn women?
- more personal freedom
- could win their freedom and gain power by bearing healthy sons for rulers
- learned more
What difference was there in gender relations between lower class and upper class women?
- lower class women could have jobs and upper class could not.
What took place in 945 in the Muslim Empire?
- Buyids captured Baghdad
What does sultan translate to mean?
What group replaced the Buyids around 1055?
- seljuk turks
-kill a lot of the Shi'a and Byzantines
What two things allowed the First Crusade to become a success
- muslim political division
- element of surprise
Who would successfully lead the Muslims during the end of the 12th century?
- salah- ud din
List the areas of influence the Muslims had on Europe after the Crusades?
- new weaponry
- techniques of building fortifications
- modern medicine
What language nearly replaced Arabic entirely in Muslim culture?
What two works are considered masterpieces of Muslim writing?
- Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
- Shan- hama; ferdaissi firawsi
What advances did Muslims make in the field of math?
- algebra, geometry, trigonometry
What discoveries were found in the field of chemistry?
- creation of objective experiment
- Razi's scheme of classifying all material
Why did Cairo's hospitals have the best physicians?
- doctors had to pass a course of study and end of course test in order to practice.
What trend emerged in the Muslim religious community after the Crusades?
- suspicious of non- Islamic ideas and scientific thinking
What did sufis seek?
- wondering mystics who sought personal union with Allah.
What group began invading the Abbasid empire in the early 13th century and who led these people?
Who took control of this group later during the 1250s and took the capital Baghdad?
Who were the Mamluks?
- Turkic slaves who then ruled Egypt
- defeated Mongols in late 1200s
How were the HIndu and Muslim faiths in direct opposition to one another?
- Islam is much more structured
- Hindu is more flexible
what was the first contact between Muslim and HIndu groups around 711?
- peaceful trading contacts
- attack by sind pirates on same arab traders.
How did Mahmud of Ghazni affect northern India?
- began to invade and raid northern India
Where did these Muslims place their capitol? Why is this significant?
- not associated with the Umayyads or the abbasids
Where did most Indian converts to Islam come from?
- Buddhists or low cast groups and untouchables.
Why did India become a place of refuge for many Muslims around the 13th and 14th centuries?
- Mongols and tinerants are invading the middle east
- Muslims are running for their lives to India
What sort of social relationship did Hindus ave with their Muslim conquerors?
- saw them as out castes; animosity; did not interact with them
Explain what the majority of HIndus believe would happen to their Muslim conquerors as had happened to previous invading groups.
- they would be absorbed
How were women in India affected by the Muslim invasion?
- sati; widows threw themselves onto their husbands dead burning bodies
- lost a lot of rights
- widows couldn't remarry
After Hundus realized the Muslim faith was not going to be absorbed what did they resort to in order to keep more people from converting to Islam?
- put a greater emphasis on devotion
- Bhaktic cults included women and untouchables
- for personal relationships with gods or goddesses
How did these cults stem the flow of converts to Islam?
- increase involvement in Hindu worship in all groups
Why did neither the Muslims or Hindus of India really absorb the other?
- Both worked hard to keep themselves seperate
What group prevented the spread of Muslim ideas in the Southeast Asia?
what city played a vital role in the spread of Islam across Southeast Asia?
Why were the Sufis so successful in converting people?
- they varied in personality and approach
- allowed people of southeast Asia to keep some ideas of the various religions in the area
how were women treated in this are of Muslim control?
- much stronger status in family and community than other areas
- lineage still traced through the woman