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What problems were the Abbasid facing from Shi'a opposition?

- revolts and assassination attempts

What problem continued to go on even after the death of Al-Mahdi

-Arguing about who will the successor

Who did Harun al-Rashid become heavily dependent upon during his reign?

- a family of persian advisors

what problems began surfacing in the royal court of the Muslim Empire that was very similar to problems China felt during the Han Dynasty?

- advisers got more and more powerful; people on the thrown turned into figure heads

What occured after Harun's death?

-several full scale civil wars over succession

What became the solution to potential heirs to the Muslim Empire in regards to civil war?

-build personal armies

How did slave mercenaries play a role in the decline of the Abbasids?

- 846 c.e. slave mercenaries murdered the reigning caliph
-mercenaries became a major force for social unrest.

List the three causes for the Muslim Empire's treasure have on Muslim people?

- constant civil violence
- construction of public works
- the armies needed more money

What affect did the low funds in the treasury have on Muslim people?

-people had to pay taxes
- great irrigation works needed for agriculture broke down and in some areas collapsed entirely.
-peasants perished due to famine, flood, or violent assaults
- others fled to wilderness areas
- some formed bandit gangs

What two things become common practices in gender relations during the Abbasid era?

- the harem
- women wearing a veil.

What is a harem?

- wives and slaves are confined to a certain part of the home

How were female slaves treated in comparison to freeborn women?

- more personal freedom
- could win their freedom and gain power by bearing healthy sons for rulers
- learned more

What difference was there in gender relations between lower class and upper class women?

- lower class women could have jobs and upper class could not.

What took place in 945 in the Muslim Empire?

- Buyids captured Baghdad

What does sultan translate to mean?

- victorious

What group replaced the Buyids around 1055?

- seljuk turks
-kill a lot of the Shi'a and Byzantines

What two things allowed the First Crusade to become a success

- muslim political division
- element of surprise

Who would successfully lead the Muslims during the end of the 12th century?

- salah- ud din

List the areas of influence the Muslims had on Europe after the Crusades?

- new weaponry
- techniques of building fortifications
- modern medicine

What language nearly replaced Arabic entirely in Muslim culture?

- persian

What two works are considered masterpieces of Muslim writing?

- Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
- Shan- hama; ferdaissi firawsi

What advances did Muslims make in the field of math?

- algebra, geometry, trigonometry

What discoveries were found in the field of chemistry?

- creation of objective experiment
- Razi's scheme of classifying all material

Why did Cairo's hospitals have the best physicians?

- doctors had to pass a course of study and end of course test in order to practice.

What trend emerged in the Muslim religious community after the Crusades?

- suspicious of non- Islamic ideas and scientific thinking

What did sufis seek?

- wondering mystics who sought personal union with Allah.

What group began invading the Abbasid empire in the early 13th century and who led these people?

- Mongols
-Chinggis Khan

Who took control of this group later during the 1250s and took the capital Baghdad?

- Hulegu

Who were the Mamluks?

- Turkic slaves who then ruled Egypt
- defeated Mongols in late 1200s

How were the HIndu and Muslim faiths in direct opposition to one another?

- Islam is much more structured
- Hindu is more flexible

what was the first contact between Muslim and HIndu groups around 711?

- peaceful trading contacts
- attack by sind pirates on same arab traders.

How did Mahmud of Ghazni affect northern India?

- began to invade and raid northern India

Where did these Muslims place their capitol? Why is this significant?

- Delhi
- not associated with the Umayyads or the abbasids

Where did most Indian converts to Islam come from?

- Buddhists or low cast groups and untouchables.
- shudras

Why did India become a place of refuge for many Muslims around the 13th and 14th centuries?

- Mongols and tinerants are invading the middle east
- Muslims are running for their lives to India

What sort of social relationship did Hindus ave with their Muslim conquerors?

- saw them as out castes; animosity; did not interact with them

Explain what the majority of HIndus believe would happen to their Muslim conquerors as had happened to previous invading groups.

- they would be absorbed

How were women in India affected by the Muslim invasion?

- sati; widows threw themselves onto their husbands dead burning bodies
- lost a lot of rights
- widows couldn't remarry

After Hundus realized the Muslim faith was not going to be absorbed what did they resort to in order to keep more people from converting to Islam?

- put a greater emphasis on devotion
- Bhaktic cults included women and untouchables
- for personal relationships with gods or goddesses

How did these cults stem the flow of converts to Islam?

- increase involvement in Hindu worship in all groups

Why did neither the Muslims or Hindus of India really absorb the other?

- Both worked hard to keep themselves seperate

What group prevented the spread of Muslim ideas in the Southeast Asia?

-Shrivijaya

what city played a vital role in the spread of Islam across Southeast Asia?

- Malacca

Why were the Sufis so successful in converting people?

- they varied in personality and approach
- allowed people of southeast Asia to keep some ideas of the various religions in the area

how were women treated in this are of Muslim control?

- much stronger status in family and community than other areas
- lineage still traced through the woman

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