the rational organization of sounds and silence as they pass through time
a broad category of music designed to please a large section of the general public; sometimes used in the contradistinction to more "serious" or more "learned" classical music.
the traditional music of any culture, usually involving a specialized technical vocabulary and requiring long years of training; it is "high art: or "learned" music that is enjoyed generation after generation.
instruments that produce sound when strings are bowed or plucked, a tube had air passed through it, or percussion instruments are struck.
the words of a song
french for start again; the repeat of a piece demanded by the audience; an extra piece added to the end of a concert
a genre of instrumental music for orchestra consisting of several movements; also, the orchestral ensemble that plays this genre
a large, independent section of a major instrumental work, such as a sonata, dance,suite, symphony, quartet, or concerto.
the large instrumental ensemble that plays symphonies, overtures, concertos, and the like
a short, distinctive melodic figure that stands by itself
tone poem/symphonic poem
a one-movement work for orchestra of the Romantic era that gives musical expression to the emotions and events associated with a story, play, political occurrence, personal experience, or encounter with nature
the organization of time in music, dividing up long spans of time into smaller, more easily comprehended units.
an even pulse in music that divides the passing of time into equal segments
unit of musical duration that most often represents the beat; normally moves at roughly the rate of the average person's heartbeat
a group of beats, or musical pulses; usually, the number of beats is fixed and constant so that the measure serves as a continual unit of measurement in music
the gathering of beats into regular groups
gathering of beats into two beats per measure, with every other beat stressed
gathering of beats in three beats per measure, with every third beat stressed
music with four beats per measure
two numbers, one on top of the other, usually placed at the beginning of the music to tell the performer what note value is carrying the beat and how the beats are to be grouped
the first beat of each measure; indicated by a downward motion of the conductor's hand and usually stressed
the beat that occurs with the upward motion of the conductor's hand and immediately before the downbeat
a note or two coming before the first downbeat of a piece, intending to give a little extra push into that downbeat
emphasis or stress placed on a musical tone or a chord
a rhythmic device in which the natural accent falling on a strong beat is displaced to a weak beat or between the beats
the speed of at which the beats occur in music
a gradual slowing down of the tempo
genre of African-American music of the 1980s and 1990s in which rhyming lyrics are chanted to a musical accompaniment
larger genre, encompassing rap music, in which the vocal line is delivered more like speech than like song and in which a wide variety of rhythmic devices are used
series of notes arranged in order to form a distinctive, recognizable musical unit; most often placed in the treble
the interval comprising the first and eighth tones of the major and minor diatonic scale; the sounds are quite similar because the frequency of vibration of the higher pitch is exactly twice that of the lower
a horizontal grid onto which are put the symbols of musical notation: notes, rests, accidentals, dynamic marks, etc
a sign used to indicate the register, or range of pitches, in which an instrument is to play or a singer is to sing
the sign placed on a staff to indicate the notes above middle C
a sign placed on a staff to indicate the notes below middle C
large musical staff that combines both the treble and the bass clefs
musical symbol that raises a pitch by a half-step
in musical notation, a symbol that lowers a pitch by a half step
natural(square w/ 2 sticks)
in musical notation, a symbol that cancels a preexisting sharp or flat.
an arrangement of pitches that ascends and descends in a fixed and unvarying pattern.
a seven-note scale that ascends in the following order of whole and half steps: 1-1- ½ -1-1-1- ½
a seven-note scale that ascends in the following order of whole and half steps: 1- ½- 1-1- ½ -1-1
in musical notation, a preplaced set of sharps or flats used to indicate the scale and key
the central pitch around which the melody and harmony gravitate
the organization of music around a central tone(the tonic) and the scale built on that tone.
a tonal center built on a tonic note and making use of a scale; also, on a keyboard instrument, one of a series of lever that can be depressed to generate sound.
the process by whereby the tonal center changes from one key to another—from G major to C major
a pattern of pitches forming a scale; the two primary modes in Western music are major and minor.
scale that makes use of all twelve pitches, equally divided, within the octave.
a self-contained portion of a melody, theme, or time
the opening, incomplete-sounding phrase of a melody; often followed by a consequent phrase that brings the melody to closure
the second phrase of a two-part melodic unit that brings a melody to a point of repose and closure
the sounds that provide the support and enrichment—the accompaniment—for melody
two or more simultaneously sounding pitches
a chord consisting of three pitches and two intervals of a third
the chord built on the fifth degree of the scale
the chord built on the fourth, or subdominant, degree of the major or minor scale
a succession of chords moving forward in a purposeful fashion
the notes of a triad or seventh chord played in direct succession and in a direct line-up or down
a discordant mingling of sounds
pitches sounding agreeable and stable
the concluding part of a musical phrase
(Italian for "obstinate")a musical figure, motive, melody, harmony, or rhythm that is repeated again and again
an expressive, soulful style of singing that emerged from the African-American spiritual and work song at the end of the nineteenth century; its texts are strophic, its harmonies simple and repetitive
twelve bar blues
a standard formal plan for the blues involving a repeating twelve-measure harmonic support in which the chords can progress I-IV-I-V-I
type of soul music that emerged in the 1950s as an outgrowth of the gospel hymns sung in African-American churches in urban Detroit, Chicago, and New York; its lyrics made use of repeating phrases sung in a cappella(unaccompanied) harmony below the tune.
the various levels of volume, loud and soft, at which sounds are produced in a musical composition.
in musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating "loud."
in musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating "very soft."
a gradual increase in the volume of sound
gradual decrease in the intensity of sound.
the character or quality of a musical tone as determined by its harmonics and its attack and decay
the highest female vocal part
the lower of the two female voice parts, the soprano being higher
the highest male vocal range
the lowest male voice range
a group of singers, usually including sopranos, altos, tenors, and basses, with at least two and often many more singers on each vocal part; in Tin Pan Alley songs and Broadway tunes, the main melody of the song; jazz musicals often improvised around it.
a female vocal range between alto and soprano
a male voice part of a middle range, between the higher tenor and the lower bass
an introductory movement, usually for orchestra, that precedes an opera, oratorio, or dance suite.
a slight and continual wobbling of the pitch produced on a string instrument or by the human voice.
the process whereby a performer plucks the strings of an instrument rather than bowing them.
a musical tremor produced on a string instrument by repeating the same pitch with quick up-and-down strokes of the bow.
a rapid alteration of two neighboring pitches
any device that muffles the sound of a musical instrument; on the trumpet, for example, it is a cup that is placed inside the bell of the instrument
a device of sliding up or down the scale very rapidly
a detachable portion of a brass instrument into which the player blows.
a knob(or key) on a pipe organ that, when pulled(or pushed), allows a particular group of pipes to sound, thereby creating a distinctive tone color
a composite of the musical lines of all the instruments of the orchestra and from which a conductor conducts
the density and disposition of the musical lines that make up a musical composition; monophonic, homophonic, and polyphonic are the primary musical textures
a musical texture involving only a single line of music with no accompaniment
two or more voices or instrumental parts singing or playing the same pitch
a texture in which all the voices, or lines, move to new pitches at roughly the same time; often referred to in contradistinction to polyphony
a musical texture involving two or more simultaneously sounding lines; the lines are often independent and create counterpoint
the harmonious opposition of two or more independent musical lines
canon(of western music)
a core repertoire, or the "chestnuts," of classical music performed at concerts continually since the eighteenth century
a contrapuntal form in which the individual voices enter and each in turn duplicates exactly the melody that the first voice played or sang
the purposeful organization of the artist's materials; in music, the general shape of a composition as perceived by the listener
presentation of important musical idea
process employed by a composer to validate the importance of a section of music by repeating it.
process employed by a composer to introduce different melodies, rhythms, textures or moods in order to provide variety
process employed by a composer to alter melody and harmony in some way
a musical form often used in setting a strophic, or stanzaic, text, such as a hymn or carol; the music is repeated anew for each successive strophe.
theme and variation
a musical form in which a theme continually returns but is varied by changing the notes of the melody, the harmony, the rhythm, or some other feature of the music.
a musical form consisting of two units (A and B) constructed to balance and complement each other
indication to performer to repeat the music
a three-part musical form in which the third section is a repeat of the first; hence ABA
classical form with at least three statements of the refrain (A) an at least two contrasting sections (at least B and C); placement of the refrain creates symmetrical patterns such as ABACA, ABACABA, or even ABACADA