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Child Development

Schema

Cognitive structures. "blue prints" of organized ideas that grow and differentiate with experiences.

Assimilation

Applying existing mental patterns (schemas) to new information.

Accommodation

Adjusting schemas, and creating new ones.

Sensorimotor Stage (0-2)

Develop Motor skills, sense, and world around them.

Object Permanence

In infancy, child learns about object existence as permanent. If they cannot see it, it does not exist.

Preoperational Skill (2-7)

Language skills develop, egocentric approach, children think symbolically.

Egocentrism

Inability to consider another point of view

Concrete Operational Skill (7-11)

Children perform concrete operations. Thinking tied to concrete objects, people, events.

Conservation

Understanding things like volume are unchanged, even if container is changes. (volume, mass, weight)

Formal Operational Stage (11+)

Develop abstract and hypothetical thinking

Developmental Psychology

study of age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death

Maturation

development governed by automatic, genetically predetermined signals.

Critical Period

a time of special sensitivity to specific types of learning, which shapes the capacity for future development.

Puberty

biological changes during adolescence that lead to an adult sized body and sexual maturity.

Attachment

strong emotional bond with special others that endures over time.

Imprinting

innate form of learning within a critical period that involves attachment to the first large moving object seen.

Secure Attachment

children prefer attention of their caregivers

Insecure (Avoidant and Ambivalent) Attachment

children become distressed when parents leave but do not feel comforted when they return.

Authoritarian Parenting

impose rules and expect obediencec

Authoritative Parenting

both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, but they also explain the reasons for rules. they encourage open discussion when making the rules and allow exceptions.

Permissive (indifferent or indulgent) parenting

parents submit to their children's desires. They make few demands and use little punishment.

Negligent or Abusive Parenting

disregard children and are not involved in their life. they have low responsiveness and do not set limits or punishments.

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