Cognitive structures. "blue prints" of organized ideas that grow and differentiate with experiences.
Applying existing mental patterns (schemas) to new information.
Adjusting schemas, and creating new ones.
Sensorimotor Stage (0-2)
Develop Motor skills, sense, and world around them.
In infancy, child learns about object existence as permanent. If they cannot see it, it does not exist.
Preoperational Skill (2-7)
Language skills develop, egocentric approach, children think symbolically.
Inability to consider another point of view
Concrete Operational Skill (7-11)
Children perform concrete operations. Thinking tied to concrete objects, people, events.
Understanding things like volume are unchanged, even if container is changes. (volume, mass, weight)
Formal Operational Stage (11+)
Develop abstract and hypothetical thinking
study of age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death
development governed by automatic, genetically predetermined signals.
a time of special sensitivity to specific types of learning, which shapes the capacity for future development.
biological changes during adolescence that lead to an adult sized body and sexual maturity.
strong emotional bond with special others that endures over time.
innate form of learning within a critical period that involves attachment to the first large moving object seen.
children prefer attention of their caregivers
Insecure (Avoidant and Ambivalent) Attachment
children become distressed when parents leave but do not feel comforted when they return.
impose rules and expect obediencec
both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, but they also explain the reasons for rules. they encourage open discussion when making the rules and allow exceptions.
Permissive (indifferent or indulgent) parenting
parents submit to their children's desires. They make few demands and use little punishment.
Negligent or Abusive Parenting
disregard children and are not involved in their life. they have low responsiveness and do not set limits or punishments.