AP Psych Ch. 15 Vocab

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Ch. 15 Psych Vocab, Mrs. Rocke, Psychology 8th edition by David Myers, Worth Publishers

personality

individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

free association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

unconscious

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware

id

contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, the id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification

ego

largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

superego

part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations

pyschosexual stages

childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on direct erogenous zones

erogenous zones

oral (mouth-sucking, biting, chewing), anal (bowel/bladder-elimination, coping with demands for control), phallic (genitals-coping with incestuous sexual feelings), latency (dormant sexual feelings), genital (maturation of sexual interests

oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

identification

process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

fixation

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts are unresolved

defense mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

regression

psychoanalytic theory defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated

reaction formation

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, ppl may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings

projection

psychoanalytic theory defense mechanism by which ppl disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others

rationalization

defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions

displacement

psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet, see sublimation

collective unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history

psychodynamic theory

an approach to personality development, based largely on the ideas of Sigmund Freud, which holds that much of behaviour is governed by unconscious forces. (a theory)

projective test

personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

thematic apperception test (TAT)

projective test in which ppl express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

rorschach inkblot test

most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify ppl's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

terror-management theory

proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death

false consensus effect

tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

self-actualization

according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential

unconditioned positive regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

self-concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

trait

characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports

Myers-Briggs type indicator

126 question test that attempts to sort ppl according to Carl Jung's personality types, feeds info in complimentary terms, every type has strengths

factor analysis

identify clusters of behavior that correlate,2 dimensions: extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability

introversion

tend to be more reserved, less outgoing, and less sociable, not necessarily loners, tend to have smaller circles of friends, have an easier time solving things inside their head than extroverts, does not describe social discomfort but rather social preference

extroversion

tend to be gregarious, assertive, and interested in seeking out excitement, tend to think out loud and cannot solve things in their heads as well as introverts

personality inventory

questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which ppl respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes

empirically derived test

test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups

big 5 factors

consientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion

reciprocal determinism (triadic reciprocality)

interacting influences between personality and environmental factors

personal control

our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless

internal locus of control

perception that one controls one's own fate

external locus of control

perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's own fate

learned helplessness

hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

spotlight effect

overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)

self-esteem

one's feeling of high or low self-worth

self-serving bias

readiness to perceive oneself favorably

preconscious

thoughts which are unconscious at the particular moment in question, but which are not repressed and are therefore available for recall and easily capable of becoming conscious

sublimation

psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet, see displacement

collectivism

emphasizes family and work group goals

individualism

emphasizes personal achievement

social-cognitive perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context

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