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initiation - self medication

People take up a behaviour or start using a substance to relieve their psychological symptoms, such as depression or anxiety.

self medication - studies (support)

Li et al found that compared to pathalogical gamblers who gambled for pure pleasure, pathalogical gamblers who gambled to escape the painful reality of life were more likely to have other substance dependencies.

self medication - studies (support)

Gelkopf et al proposes that individuals intentionally use different forms of pathalogical behaviour to treat the psychological symptoms they suffer. The particular activity an addict chooses is not selected at random but tends to be one perceived a helping with the particular problem.

initiation - expectancy theory

People gain expectations about behaviours or sbstances, such as smoking will relieve stress. Smoking does not actually relieve stress but its peoples expectancies that makes it seem like it relieves stress.

maintenance - expectancy theory

An addict with multiple obvious negative consequences of their behaviour may find it difficult to believe they have an addiction. They are offended by criticism of their behaviour and still have more positive than negative expectancies of their addictive behaviour.

expectancy theory - studies - maintenance

Tate et al told smokers that they should expect no negative experiences during a period of abstinence. This led to frewer reported somatic effects (e.g. the shakes) and psychological effects (e.g. mood disturbance) than a control group who were not so primed. Those told to expect somatic but not psychological problems later experienced more numerous and more severe somatic complaints than a control group who had not been told to expect this.

expectancy theory - studies (support)

Brandon et al proposed that a behviour esculates into addiction because of the expectations that an individual has about the costs and benefits of that activity.

expectancy theory - studies (support)

Kassel et al found that adolescent smokers commonly report smoking when they are experiencing negative moods.

Maintenance - self medication

The person finds it extremely difficult to cope with moods, such as depression, so they continue to do their behaviour or substance to relieve this. This makes them addicted because they rely on the bahviour or substance.

Irrational beliefs

Gamblers have irrational perceptions about their ability to influence the outcomes of their gambling such as:
1. The gamblers fallacy-the belief that random events such as a coin toss are somehow influenced by recent events.
2. Gamblers may carry out superstitious behaviours that they think will influence their game.
3. They may have flexible attributions e.g. attributing success to skill but failure to bad luck.
4. The may fixate on absolute frequency by focusing on the total number rather than the frequency of wins (so ignoring losses).

irrational beleifs - studies

Griffiths carried out a an experiment with regular and non regular gamblers. The participants were also split into thinking aloud and not thinking aloud groups. They found that the was no difference in objective skill between regular and non regular gamblers but that 14% of non regular gamblers' verbalisations were irrational compared to 25% of regular gamblers.
Delfabbro et al found pathological gamblers were more irrational in some forms of gambling retaled cognition but were just as accurate as non-gamblers in estimating the odds of winning.

relapse - self medication

the individual can no longer cope without the behaviour or substance, so they relapse to help relieve their depression or anxiety.

relapse - expectancy theory

the indicidual may relapse because they beleive that life will be better with the substance or behaviour rather than without it.

relapse - expectancy theory - studies

Moolchan et al showed that use of nicotine patches could increase cessation rates and reduce relapse rates but only when accompanied by cognitive behavioural therapy to change the positive expectancies of smoking behaviour.

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