The relationship between place and life.
Drew oldest surviving maps on clay tablets.
Science of map making.
People needed to know trade routes; therefore, the use of cartography emerged.
Laid the foundations of cartography; established three primary continents: Asia, Europe, and Libya (Africa).
Greek cartographer credited with making the first map.
Greek historian -- took Anaximander's map and wrote about countries and inhabitants of the unknown world.
Made an accurate computation of Earth's circumference; his calculation was 175km too long; he coined the term "geography".
Aristotle, Sacrates, Plato
Greek philosophers who believed the earth was round.
Noticed during an eclipse that Earth cast a circular shadow on the moon.
Ptolemy of Egypt
Cartography who published "Guide to Geography" -- rough maps of the landmasses as well as a grid system.
Created first map of China.
Chinese explorer rumored to have reached the U.S .West Coast 72 years before Columbus.
Center of development; developed gunpowder, an advanced writing system, etc.; closed itself off to other countries.
Law of Retarding Lead
Civilizations that are more advanced eventually fall behind because they feel they have nothing to learn from other countries; later they need to catch up with others.
During Middle Ages, built upon Greek and Roman geographical knowledge.
Middle Ages (in Europe)
Europe closed itself off.
Age of Exploration.
Explorer; fascinated others with his stories of other cultures (gems, textiles, spices, etc.) and inspired a new wave of explorers.
First world map that accurately identifies seven continents; universities in Europe start teaching geography as a formal discipline.
Culture is direct product of environment; theory was rejected in 1930s for being prejudiced.
Possiblist approach; humans are not products of their environment but possess the skills necessary to modify their environment to fit their needs.