BJU space & earth

31 terms by LaDolceVita 

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BJU 8th Grade Space & Earth Chapter 4 The Sun

Milky Way

The galaxy that contains our solar system; visible as a broad band of stars across the night sky

electromagnetic waves

A form of energy that can be transmitted through a vacuum. Its spectrum contains radio waves, infrared waves, visible light waves, ultra-violet waves, x-rays, and gamma rays

neutrino

An electronically neutral, subatomic, nearly massless, particle emitted by the fusion reaction within the sun that travels at nearly the speed of light

wavelength

The horizontal distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum

spectroscope

An instrument used to identify the elements in an incandesent substance by separating and measuring the component wavelenghts

spectrum

A distribution of electromagnetic energies arranged in order of wavelengths

diffraction grating

a device made of thousands of closely spaced slits through which light is passed in order to produce a spectrum

plasma

a fourth state of matter that forms at extremely high temperatures and is distinct from solid or liquid or gas. It is present in stars and fusion reactors. Its particles are partially or completely ionized.

ionize

To add or remove an electron from a particle to create an ion

photosphere

the visible surface of the sun

granule

One of innumerable bumps in the sun's photosphere thought to result from convection currents bringing up hot plasma from beneath the sun's surface

sunspot

a relatively small, cooler darker area appearing periodically on the sun's photosphere believed to be associated with irregularities in the sun's magnetic field

limb

the circumferential edge of the apparent disc of a planet, the sun or the moon

umbra

the darker inner portion of a sunspot

penumbra

the lighter outer temperature region of a sunspot

solar flare

Violent eruption on the surface of the sun resulting in intense emissions of ultra-violet radiation, x-rays, and solar matter Larger solar flares (coronal mass ejections) create geomagnetic storms on earth.

radiation

the penetrating rays and particles (heat or light) emitted by a radioactive source

chromosphere

layer of gases that form the innermost layer of the Sun's atmosphere

corona

the extremely hot, outermost region of the sun's atmosphere that becomes the solar wind

coronagraph

An instrument used to observe the corona of the sun by creating an artificial eclipse

spicule

A pointed jet of gases from the top of the sun's chromosphere extending into the corona

facula

a large bright spot on the sun's photosphere, usually near one or more sunspots

solar wind

High-speed particles from the sun's corona mostly protons and electrons traveling outward in all directions into intersteller space

prominence

An immense disturbance in the corona of the sun that may appear as a loop, a feathery structure or an irregular mass rising from and falling back into the sun

core

The central region of the interior of a celestial object where thermonuclear fusion takes place

radiative zone

The middle zone of the model of the sun's interior where thermal energy moves outward from the core by radiation

photon

tiny particle or 'packet' of energy - has 0 mass and no electric charge

pressure

the total amount of force exerted over a standard area

convective zone

In the model of the sun's interior, it is the outermost region, composed of extremely hot plasmas, where heat transfer from the radiative zone to the surface occurs by convection

solar energy

energy that comes from the light/heat of the sun

photovoltaic cell

A device that changes radiant energy (especially light) into an electric voltage

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