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study guide for exam 1 for Sullivan College's art history II class.

List one of the four things (criteria) that characterize the slow, 100 year transformation toward "modern art"

1. changes in patronage 2. changes in art instruction
3. changes in artist status 4. social/political upheaval

What is the name given to the visual/drawing method which had been used since the Renaissance to represent three dimensional space?

one point perspective

This style of art gave up painting from life and from direct observation and copied instead the style of the old Renaissance masters:

Mannerism

List one characteristic that describes the style of the Neoclassical:

greco/roman architecture, period dress, landscapes, themes and history, dull earthy colors, smooth surfaces plus French Revolutionary ideas/spirit.

The most famous male painter of the Neoclassical who was known for works like
"The Oath of the Horatii" is:

Jaques Louis David

List ways in which the style of the Romantics is different from that of the
Neoclasscists

Brighter, jewel tone colors, visible brush strokes, exotic locales and themes, relys on imaginations and fantasy.

Ideas that landscape painters, such as Friedrich and Corot, were trying to convey with their paintings?

mystery of nature, a sense of spiritual awe, vastness and power of nature.

Term, meaning a specific method of education, dating back to4th century BCE Athens and to the philosopher/teacher Plato:

Academy

The term "art" once meant only this, and only gradually evolved to imply creative genius:

any skill

Why were artists initially so concerned with getting their works accepted to the Salons?

It gave them legitimacy, access to patrons and exposure for their work.

name given to the type of photographic black and white print on a silver treated metal plate.

Daguerrotype

who invented the Daguerrotype?

Louis Daguerre

First successful photo to be printed on paper

Calotype

Oscar Rejlander

What style of painting does Rejlander's photography mimic?

Neoclassical

Honore Daumier

"Work" (title)

The Victorians believed hard labor led to
three things in life.

1. material wealth 2. spiritual salvation 3. national progress.

Explain what the term Avant-garde means

1. ahead of its time 2. the vanguard 3. those who go before.

Edouard Manet

Why was this painting considered shocking to the establishment?

1.flat, unrealistic landscape. 2. does not follow perspective rules. 3. infamous female model 4.figures dressed as art students 5. socially awkward nudity/situation.

Radical new ideas (styles of art, music, etc) go through a three step process as they are introduced to society for the first time, list the steps:

1. Outrage 2. Acceptance 3. Establishment

"Olympia" (title)

Why was this re-creation of the "Venus of Urbino" so shocking to the establishment? Give one reason:

1. depicts well known prostitute. 2. Copies the "Venus" in a way that seemed insulting 3. Replaces the symbolism to tell very different story.

List one of the goals of the Impressionist painters:

1. Capture what the eye sees at a glance 2. Recapture light and color 3. paint the way the eye sees

This type of new technology was one of the causes of impressionism and had a big influence on the style:

Photography

This development in art equipment/supplies was what allowed the Impressionist painters to go out of doors to paint:

Pre-mixed tube paints

Edgar Degas

The above mentioned artist used photography in which ways?

to capture lighting. capture model's pose. establish unusual cropping/point of view.

Mary Cassat

themes Mary Cassat wasknown for

domestic scenes, women and children, motherhood

How impressionism got its name

an art critic's insulting review after viewing Monet's "Impression:Sunrise"

Which impressionist artist set the popular style in art for american millionaries to
collect?

Mary Cassat

stop-motion photograpy

inventor of stop-motion photograpy

Eadweard Muybridge

American artists after the civil war wanted what for their art works?

European Salon acceptance

George Catlin

Are Catlins portraits of Native Americans considered historically accurate?

Yes. They are part of an ethnographic series in the Smithsonian.

"Madame X"

Why was" Madame X" a scandalous work of art?

She was a proper, high class, married woman depicted as sexy during the ultra conservative Victorian period. Her shoulder strap was originally down.

Why was "Madame X" a challenging portrait for Sargent to paint?

The fashion was for very pale skin, and Madame X was wearing lead powder to seen very white. It made her look blue, like a corpse. He had to make her look alive and attractive despite her coloration.

Winslow Homer

"Prisoners From the Front" is in what style?

Realism

Is "Prisoners From the Front" considered historically accurate?

Yes.

Thomas Eakins

Thomas Eakins most admired and copied the interests of which Renaissance master?

Leonardo Da Vinci

Henry Ossawa Tanner

Henry Ossawa Tanner is credited with having helped create/inspire what important art movement?

The Harlem Renaissance

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