The Chemical Structure Of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

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DNA is a polymeric molecule i.e made up of many building blocks called monomers. What is the monomeric unit called and how many different monomers are there

Nucleotides. Billions make up a strand but there are only four nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine)

State the main structural difference between purine and pyrimidine bases

Purines are double ringed and pyrimidines are single ringed

Adenine

Purine

Guanine

Purine

Uracil

Pyrimidine

Thymine

Pyrimidine

Cytosine

Pyrimidine

Explain why a purine must be paired with a pyrimidine in the DNA double helix

The molecular distance from Adenine combined with Thymine is the same as the molecular distance from Guanine combined with Cytosine. This gives a uniform distance that can fill up the center of the helix

Determine how many hydrogen bonds are found between guanine and cytosine

3

Determine how many hydrogen bonds are found between adenine and thymine

2

State the type of bond involved in the formation of a chain of nucleotides

Phosphodiester bond

Explain what is meant by the anti-parallel arrangement in the DNA double helix

One strand (leading)is 5' to 3' and the other strand (lagging) is 3' to 5'. They are concurrent

Describe what 5' and 3' refer to

5 prime carbon and 3 prime carbon. 3' hydroxyl and 5' phosphate group to form phosphodiester bond. Refers to the sugar itself

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