Plasma Membrane and Energy

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Phagocytosis

Literally "cell-eating." A process of bringing relatively large materials into a cell by means of wrapping extensions of the plasma membrane (pseudopodia) around the materials and fusing the extensions together.

Receptor-mediated Endocytosis

A form of endocytosis that is dependent on receptors, whose role is to bind to specific molecules and then hold onto them.

Pinocytosis

Literally "cell drinking." A form of endocytosis that brings into the cell as small volume of extracellular fluid and the materials suspended in it.

Osmosis

The net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of a higher concentration to lower.

First Law of Thermodynamics

States that energy cannot be destroyed, only transformed.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

States that energy trasnfer always results in a greater amount of disoder in the universe.

Endergonic

Reactions in which the products contain more energy than the reactants.

Exergonic

Reactions in which the products contain less energy than the reactants.

Coupled Reaction

A chemical reaction in which an exergonic reaction powers an endergonic reaction.

Substrate

Substance that is being worked on by an enzyme.

Active Site

The portion of an enzyme that binds with and transforms a substrate

Coenzymes

Molecules other than amino acids that facilitate the work of enzymes by binding with them. Vitamins are an example of these.

Metabolic Pathway

A set of enzymatically controlled steps that result in the completion of a product or process in an organism.

Hypertonic Solution

A fluid that has a higher concentration of solutes than another causing water to flow out of a cell

Hypotonic Solution

Water flows into cell; ideal environment for plant cells.

Isotonic Solution

Two solutions that have equal concentations of solutes.

Allosteric Regulation

The regulation of an enzyme's activity by means of a molecule binding to a site on the enzyme other than its active site.

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