Which of the following is the basic procedure for stoichiometry?
write a balanced equation, define the mole ratios, convert units into moles, apply the mole ratios, convert into the desired units
The activity series enables the chemist to determine ______.
which metals replace others in displacement reactions
The shiny parts of many cars are steel on which chromium has been electroplated. Will the chromium react with water in the atmosphere?
In a single-replacement reaction, one metal will replace another in an ionic compound only if the first metal is ______.
higher in the activity series
How many molecules of water are formed from four molecules of ammonia when it is reacted with excess oxygen?
If the given and unknown values are both in moles in a stoichiometric problem, what do you have to do to obtain the unknown?
multiply the given by the mole ratio obtained from the balanced equation
Reaction stoichiometry involves mass relationships between products and reactants in a chemical reaction, which yields a _____.
A determination of the masses and number of moles of sulfur and oxygen in the compound sulfur dioxide would be studied in ______.
A chemical equation is balanced when the _____.
same number of each kind of atom appears in the reactants and in the products
A balanced chemical equation allows one to determine the _____.
mole ratio of any two substances in the reaction
When the formula equation, Fe3O4 + Al => Al2O3 + Fe, is correctly balanced, the coefficient of Fe is the number _____.
For the reaction represented by the equation 2H2 + O2 => 2H2O, how many grams of water are produced from 6.00 mol of hydrogen?
Predict what happens when calcium metal is added to a solution of magnesium chloride.
calcium chloride forms
In order to calculate the mass of a product of an ideal reaction, you must first know _____.
the balanced chemical equation and mass or amount of any other reactant or product
Which of the following is NOT a step in solving quantitative problems in chemistry?
covert all solid measures to volumes
Given the ideal equation, CH4 + 2O2 => CO2 + 2H2O, how many grams of carbon dioxide will be produced from 8.0 grams of methane, CH4?
Before the mole ratio can be applied in stoichiometric problems, _____.
all units must be converted into moles
How many moles of oxygen gas are needed to react with 10.0 mol of ammonia, according to the equation, 4NH3 + 7O2 => 4NO2 + 6H2O ?
If 0.500 moles of sodium azide decomposes into sodium and nitrogen according to the following equation, 2NaN3 => 2Na + 3N2, what is the mass of nitrogen gas that would be produced?
What is the mass, in grams, of ammonium perchlorate required to react with 35.5 moles of aluminum, according to the following reaction, 3Al + 3NH4ClO4 => Al2O3 + AlCl3 + 3NO +6H2O ?
How many moles of hydrogen gas are produced if 454 g of methane are reacted according to the reaction, CH4 + H2O => 3H2 + CO?
How many grams of carbon dioxide are produced when 175 g of propane are combusted with oxygen, according to the reaction, C3H8 + 5O2 => 3CO2 + 4H2O?
In the reaction represented by the equation N2 + 3H2 => 2NH3, what is the mole ratio of hydrogen to ammonia?
In the reaction represented by the equation C + 2H2 => CH4, what is the mole ratio of hydrogen to methane?
In the equation 2KClO3 => 2KCl + 3O2, how many moles of oxygen are produced when 3.0 mol of KClO3 decompose completely?
A car air bag requires 70. L, or 3.125 moles, of nitrogen gas to inflate properly. The following equation represents the production of nitrogen gas:
2NaN3(s) =>2Na(s) + 3N2(g)
How many grams of NaN3 must be used to generate the amount of N2 necessary to properly inflate the air bag?
[atomic masses: Na = 22.990, N = 14.007; molar volume of any gas = 22.4 liters]
For the reaction represented by the equation Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI => PbI2 + 2KNO3, how many moles of lead(II) iodide are produced from 300. g of potassium iodide and an excess of Pb(NO3)2?
In the reaction represented by the equation 2Al2O3 => 4Al + 3O2, what is the mole ratio of aluminum to oxygen?
For the reaction represented by the equation C + 2H2 => CH4, how many moles of hydrogen are required to produce 10 mol of methane, CH 4?
What mass in grams of hydrogen gas is produced if 20.0 mol of Zn are added to excess hydrochloric acid according to the equation Zn(s) +2HCl(aq) => ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)?
For the reaction represented by the equation SO3 + H2O => H2SO4, how many grams of sulfuric acid can be produced from 200. g of sulfur trioxide and 100. g of water? (O = 16.0 amu; S = 32.1 amu; H =1.01 amu)
For the reaction represented by the equation 2H2 + O2 => 2H2O, how many moles of water can be produced from 6.0 mol of oxygen?
In examining a compound, it is found that it is made only of hydrogen and oxygen and that the percentage composition of hydrogen is 11.1% and of oxygen 88.9%. What is the empirical formula of the compound?
The difference between a limiting and an excess reactant is _____.
the amount available of the reactant
In which of the following types of reaction are there no limiting or excess reactants?
In the automobile engine, octane is combusted to form carbon dioxide and water. Which of the following is a major reason why the actual yield of carbon dioxide is smaller than the theoretical yield?
formation of carbon monoxide
To derive percent yield, you divide the actual yield by the theoretical yield and _____.
multiply by 100 and put a percent sign after it
The excess reactant is the one whose ____.
actual amount is greater that the stoichiometric proportion required
If the theoretical yield of a reaction is 200 grams, and the actual yield is 180 grams, the percentage yield is _____.
In the reaction of magnesium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid, Mg(OH)2 + HCl => MgCl2 + 2H2O, there is 0.5 mol of magnesium hydroxide available to react with 0.25 mol of hydrochloric acid. Which is the limiting reactant?
What is the mass of copper oxide, CuO, that reacts with 35.0 grams of ammonia gas, NH3, according to the following equation? 2NH3 + 3CuO => N2 + 3Cu + 3H2O
246 grams CuO
What is the percent yield of benzene, when 0.418 grams of acetylene produce 0.374 grams of benzene?
Joseph Priestley is credited with the discovery of oxygen. He produced O2 by heating mercury (II) oxide, HgO, to decompose it into its elements. How many moles of oxygen could Priestley have produced if he had decomposed 517.84 grams of mercury (II) oxide? The molar mass of mercury is 200.59 grams; and that of oxygen is 15.999 grams.
Kinetic molecular theory describes the relationship of temperature, pressure, and volume in _____.
The tendency of pressurized gases to escape through a hole in the container is called _____.
According to kinetic molecular theory, the temperature of a gas is related to its ______.
average kinetic energy of its particles
Which of the following statements violates the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory?
gas particles are attracted to each other
In many gases, the particles are of similar size. In such gases, the temperature of the gas is most closely related to _____.
the square root of the average velocity of the particles
According to the kinetic-molecular theory, gases condense into liquids because of ______.
forces between molecules
According to the kinetic-molecular theory, which is the most significant difference between gases and liquids?
the distance between the particles
According to the kinetic-molecular theory, how does a gas expand?
its particles move greater distances
The kinetic-molecular theory explains the properties of solids, liquids, and gases in terms of the energy of the particles and ______.
the forces between the particles
Two gases with unequal molar masses are injected into opposite ends of a long tube at the same time and allowed to diffuse toward the center. They should begin to mix ______.
closer to the end that holds the heavier gas
Diffusion between two gases occurs most rapidly if the gases are at _____.
high temperature and the particles are small
Which of the following correctly describes condensation?
energy of the system is lost until kinetic energy of the particles does not dramatically exceed intermolecular forces
The smallest volume in which the geometry of a crystalline structure is evident is the _____.
A fluid is a material in which particles can pass by each other freely. Fluids are either ______.
liquids or gases
The reason for surface tension in a liquid is ______.
the energy content of surface molecules is greater
The force that draws liquid upward in capillary action is _____.
the attraction between liquid and solid molecules
Once the molecules of a liquid are captured into a solid crystal structure ______.
their potential energy is so much lower that it requires a good deal of energy to overcome the lattice energy
One reason evaporation is a crucial process in nature is that ______.
it is a cooling mechanism for land animals
Ionic compounds melt at high temperatures because ______.
the strength of their ionic bonds is harder to overcome