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flat

____ bones form from intramembranous ossificaton

intramembranous

Which type of bone matures early in life, intramembranous bones or endochondral?

intramembranous

This type of ossification involves the formation of osteoblasts from the condensation of mesenchyme near blood vessels

endochondral

in this type of ossificaiton, osteoblasts (and later blood vessels) invade cartilage

epiphyseal plate

The ____ _____ is what allows bones to grow

true

T/F: bone elongation is really a result of cartilage growth.

appositional growth

Bones increasing in width throughout life is termed

bone matrix

bone can never grow from within the ____ ____

Wolff's Law

In this law of bone, the architecture of bone is determined by mechanical stresses placed on it and bones adapt to withstand those stresses

osteoblasts, osteoclasts

What two cells correspond to Wolff's law of bone remodeling?

mineralization

this is the process whereby calcium phosphate is removed from the blood and deposited into the bone by osteoblasts

mineral resorption

this is the process of dissolving bone and releasing minerals into the blood

osteoclasts

mineral resorption is performed by ___

hypocalcemia

a deficiency of calcium in the blood

hypocalcemia

this causes excess excitability of muscle, tremors, spasms, tetany (the inability to relax)

hypercalcemia

this causes nerves and muscles to be less excitable than normal. sluggish reflexes, depression.

osteocytes

If the body needs more calcium, it takes it from the ____

calcitriol, calcitonin, PTH

Calcium homeostasis is regulated by what three hormones?

parathyroid

if your Ca2+ levels drop, this gland is stimulated, causing mineral resorption to restore balance

calcitonin

This thyroid hormone___ antagonizes PTH.

hypocalcemic

If you removed your PT gland, you would be chronically...

mineralization

calcitonin basically causes

osteoporosis

the most common bone disease, possibly due to overactive osteoclasts

spongy

Osteoporosis affects (spongy/compact) bone the most because it is the most metabolically active

estrogen

osteoporosis is a concern for post-menopausal women because bone health is closely tied to ____.

epiphyseal line

the remnant of the epiphyseal plate in adults is called the

bones

99% of the body's calcium is found in the ____

interstitial

the type of bone growth that occurs within cartilage is called _____ growth

PTH

a low blood calcium level stimulates the release of

PTH

____ is the hormone that reduces kidney secretion of Ca2+

diaphysis

the site of primary ossification during endochondral ossification is the ____

intramembranous

_____ ossification forms the flat bones of the skull

hyaline cartilage

______ _____ is the structural material replaced with bone during endochondral ossification

calcitriol

this hormone is an activated form of Vitamin D, which increases the availability of calcium in the blood

hyaline

articular cartilage is what kind?

mesenchyme

this is a gelatinous embryonic connective tissue derived from the mesoderm, which differentiates into all permanent connective tissues and most muscle

metaphysis

the _____ is a transitional area between the shaft and the cartilaginous head of a developing long bone

reserve cartilage

what zone of the metaphysis is farthest from the marrow space?

kyphosis

widow's hump is called

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