____ bones form from intramembranous ossificaton
Which type of bone matures early in life, intramembranous bones or endochondral?
This type of ossification involves the formation of osteoblasts from the condensation of mesenchyme near blood vessels
in this type of ossificaiton, osteoblasts (and later blood vessels) invade cartilage
The ____ _____ is what allows bones to grow
T/F: bone elongation is really a result of cartilage growth.
Bones increasing in width throughout life is termed
bone can never grow from within the ____ ____
In this law of bone, the architecture of bone is determined by mechanical stresses placed on it and bones adapt to withstand those stresses
What two cells correspond to Wolff's law of bone remodeling?
this is the process whereby calcium phosphate is removed from the blood and deposited into the bone by osteoblasts
this is the process of dissolving bone and releasing minerals into the blood
mineral resorption is performed by ___
a deficiency of calcium in the blood
this causes excess excitability of muscle, tremors, spasms, tetany (the inability to relax)
this causes nerves and muscles to be less excitable than normal. sluggish reflexes, depression.
If the body needs more calcium, it takes it from the ____
calcitriol, calcitonin, PTH
Calcium homeostasis is regulated by what three hormones?
if your Ca2+ levels drop, this gland is stimulated, causing mineral resorption to restore balance
This thyroid hormone___ antagonizes PTH.
If you removed your PT gland, you would be chronically...
calcitonin basically causes
the most common bone disease, possibly due to overactive osteoclasts
Osteoporosis affects (spongy/compact) bone the most because it is the most metabolically active
osteoporosis is a concern for post-menopausal women because bone health is closely tied to ____.
the remnant of the epiphyseal plate in adults is called the
99% of the body's calcium is found in the ____
the type of bone growth that occurs within cartilage is called _____ growth
a low blood calcium level stimulates the release of
____ is the hormone that reduces kidney secretion of Ca2+
the site of primary ossification during endochondral ossification is the ____
_____ ossification forms the flat bones of the skull
______ _____ is the structural material replaced with bone during endochondral ossification
this hormone is an activated form of Vitamin D, which increases the availability of calcium in the blood
articular cartilage is what kind?
this is a gelatinous embryonic connective tissue derived from the mesoderm, which differentiates into all permanent connective tissues and most muscle
the _____ is a transitional area between the shaft and the cartilaginous head of a developing long bone
what zone of the metaphysis is farthest from the marrow space?
widow's hump is called