Chapter 4 - Body Structure

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chromatin

structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins

chromosome

threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that carries hereditary information encoded in genes

cytoplasm

jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients

deoxyribonucleic acid

molecule that holds genetic information capable of replication and producing and exact copy whenever the cell divides

diaphragm

muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity

metabolism

sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism

organelle

cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), ribosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell), and lysosomes (digestion)

pathology

study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development, and consequences

peristalsis

rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents onward

midsagittal (median) plane

coronal (frontal) plane

transverse (horizontal) plane

dorsal

posterior (back of the body)

ventral

anterior (front of the body)

right upper quadrant

region A

left upper quadrant

region B

right lower quadrant

region C

left lower quadrant

region D

epigastric region

region E

umbilical region

region F

right hypochondriac region

upper right region beneath the ribs (diagram on right)

left hypochondriac region

upper left region beneath the ribs (diagram on right)

right lumbar region

right middle lateral region (diagram on right)

left lumbar region

left middle lateral region (diagram on right)

hypogastric region

lower middle region beneath the navel (diagram on right)

right inguinal (iliac) region

right lower lateral region (diagram on right)

left inguinal (iliac) region

left lower lateral region (diagram on right)

abduction

movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body or one of its parts

adduction

movement toward the midsagittal (median) plane of the body

medial

pertaining to the midline of the body or structure

lateral

pertaining to a side

superior (cephalad)

toward the head or upper portion of a structure

inferior (caudal)

away from the head, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure

proximal

nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body

distal

further from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body

parietal

pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity

visceral

pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs

prone

lying on the abdomen, face down

supine

lying on horizontally on the back, face up

inversion

turning inward or inside out

eversion

turning outward

palmar

pertaining to the palm of the hand

plantar

pertaining to the sole of the foot

superficial

toward the surface of the body (external)

deep

away from the surface of the body (internal)

cyt/o

cell

hist/o

tissue

kary/o

nucleus

nucle/o

nucleus

anter/o

anterior, front

caud/o

tail

crani/o

cranium (skull)

dist/o

far, farthest

dors/o

back (of body)

infer/o

lower, below

later/o

side, to one side

medi/o

middle

poster/o

back (of body, behind, posterior

proxim/o

near, nearest

ventr/o

belly, belly side

abdomin/o

abdomen

cervic/o

neck; cervix of uteri

gastr/o

stomach

ili/o

ilium

inguin/o

groin

lumb/o

loins (lower back)

pelv/i

pelvis

pelv/o

pelvis

spin/o

spine

thorac/o

chest

umbilic/o

umbilicus, navel

albin/o

white

leuk/o

white

chlor/o

green

chrom/o

color

cirrh/o

yellow

jaund/o

yellow

xanth/o

yellow

cyan/o

blue

erythr/o

red

melan/o

black

poli/o

gray; gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)

acr/o

extremity

eti/o

cause

idi/o

unknown, peculiar

morph/o

form, shape, structure

path/o

disease

radi/o

radiation, x-ray; radius

somat/o

body

son/o

sound

viscer/o

internal organs

xer/o

dry

-genesis

forming, producing, origin (suffix)

-gnosis

knowing (suffix)

-gram

record, writing (suffix)

-graph

instrument for recording (suffix)

-graphy

process of recording (suffix)

-logist

specialist in the study of (suffix)

-logy

study of (suffix)

-meter

instrument for measuring (suffix)

-metry

act of measuring (suffix)

-paty

disease (suffix)

ab-

from, away from (prefix)

ad-

toward (prefix)

hetero-

different (prefix)

homeo-

same, alike (prefix)

infra-

below, under (prefix)

peri-

around (prefix)

super-

upper, above (prefix)

trans-

across, through (prefix)

ultra-

excess, beyond (prefix)

adhesion

abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated

analyte

substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods

contrast medium

substance injected into the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films

dehiscence

bursting open of a wound, especially a surgical abdominal wound

febrile

feverish, pertaining to a fever

homeostasis

relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes

inflammation

body defense against injury, infection, or allergy that is marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain, and sometimes loss of function

morbid

diseased; pertaining to disease

nuclear medicine

branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment, and research

radiology

medical specialty concerned with the use of electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound, and imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury

interventional radiology

radiological practice that employs fluoroscopy, CT, and ultrasound in nonsurgical treatment of various disorders

therapeutic radiology

use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer; also called radiation oncology

radionuclides

substances that emit radiation spontaneously; also called tracers

radiopharmaceutical

radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar, or other substance used to visualize an organ or area of the body that will be scanned

scan

term used to describe a computerized image by modality (such as CT, MRI, and nuclear imaging) or by structure (such as thyroid and bone)

sepsis

pathological state, usually febrile, resulting form the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream

suppurative

producing or associated with generation of pus

endoscopy

visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called and endoscope

laparoscopy

visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall

thoracoscopy

examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs

complete blood count

common blood test that enumerates red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets; measures hemoglobin; estimates red cell volume; and sorts white blood cells into five subtypes with their percentages

urinalysis

common urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine

computed tomography

imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles; formerly called computerized axial tomography

doppler

ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and direction through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells

fluoroscopy

radiographic technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays continuous motion images of internal structures

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

noninvasive imaging technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images

nuclear scan

diagnostic technique that uses a tracer that is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera to produce images of organs and structures

positron emission tomography

scanning technique using computed tomography to record the positrons (positive charged particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease

radiography

imaging technique that uses x-rays passed through the body or area and captured on a film; also called x-ray

single photon emission computed tomography

radiological technique that integrates computed tomography (CT) and a tracer injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs

tomography

radiographic technique that produces an image representing a detailed cross-section of an area, tissue, or organ at a predetermined depth

ultrasonography

imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor; also called ultrasound, sonography, echo, and echography

biopsy

representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis

frozen section biopsy

ultra-thin slice of tissue cut from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination

needle biopsy

removed of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe

punch biopsy

removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow instrument (punch)

shave biopsy

removal of tissue using a surgical blade to shave elevated lesions

ablation

removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency (RF)

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