Exam 2

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On a population growth curve, the _____________________ phase results in the same
percentage increase each year?

exponential

What is the correct sequence of phases in a typical population growth curve?

Lag, exponential,deceleration, and stable equilibrium

Which phase of a population growth curve is characterized by very slow growth due to reproduction and offspring growth?

The Lag Phase

The human population growth curve is currently in which phase?

Exponential Phase

In a bacterial growth curve, the population follows a typical growth curve until what happens?

Until the toxic waste products become present

extrinsic limiting factors

limiting factors that come from outside of the population (predators, natural accidents, loss of sunlight)

intrinsic limiting factors

limiting factors that are within the population (regulation)

environmental resistance

All the limiting factors that act together to limit the growth of a population.

density dependant limiting factors

limiting factor that depends on population size

carrying capacity

maximum sustainable capacity for a species. Can be somewhat flexible.

ecological footprint

The amount of biologically productive land and water needed to support a person or population.

What types of limiting factors are a component of environmental resistance?

Raw material availability
Energy availability
Accumulation of waste products
Interactions among organisms

R-strategists

small organisms that have a short life, produce many offspring, exploit unstable environments, and don't reach a carrying capacity. Bacteria is example.density-independent limiting factors.

K-strategists

species where organisms tend to reproduce later in life, have a smaller number of offspring, and are long living. Example is humans. controlled by density-dependent limiting factors.

Which countries have the lowest population growth rate and the highest population growth rate?

Highest Population Growth=less developed countries(India)
Lowest Population Growth=more developed countries(America)

Which organism was introduced into the Great Lakes and has expanded its range to the Mississippi River?

zebra mussel

If the human population continues to grow at its current rate, it is expected to double to ______ by the year 2060.

9.4 billion

Which factors may cause a population to grow?

social, political, economic, and ethical factors

Populations of r-strategists will be most affected by what type of factors?

density-independent limiting factors.include changing weather conditions that kill large numbers of organisms, habitat loss such as when a pond dries up or fire destroys a forest, or an event such as a deep snow or flood that buries sources of food and leads to the death of entire populations.

What is the current (2010) human population?

6.8 billion

dispersal

movement from densely populated area to a new area

age distribution

number of individuals of each age in the population.

emigration

pressure to leave an area

immigration

migrate into a new area

carrying capacity

Largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support.

biotic potential

maximum reproductive capacity of a population under optimum environmental conditions

natality

number of individuals entering the population by reproduction during a certain period(birthrate)

sex ratio

ratio of males to females in a population

What factors are important in determining population size and what factors impact population growth?

...

What are the major concerns about genetically modified organisms (GMOs)?

Unintended harm to other organisms,Reduced effectiveness of pesticides,Allergenicity,Unknown effects on human health

What is the size of the ecological footprint of Japan?

4.73 (five times larger than their biological resources)

The controlled use of fire was the first use of energy in a form other than ______?

sunlight

The shift from using wood as a source of fuel to coal was caused by what factor?

dense,rapidly growing settlements outstripped wood production

The remains of plants, animals, and microorganisms is commonly referred to as _______?

fossil fuels

In 2008 world oil prices reached what level?

$147/barrel

What was the principal use of oil during the first 60 years of production?

kerosene

Which countries are members of OPEC?

Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Libya, Algeria, Iraq, Qatar,United Arab Emirates, Iran, Indonesia, Nigeria, Ecuador, Angola, and Venezuela.

What happened to oil demand and prices when Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990?

Prices dramatically increased

The sharp decline in U.S. oil consumption in 1973 and 1979 was the result of what actions?

OPEC proclaimed an oil embargo on the United States

How much of the world's oil reserve is controlled by OPEC?

75%

Since 1970, oil prices were at their highest following production cuts by what three countries?

Lybia,Syria, Iraq

What percent of the world's oil production is controlled by OPEC countries?

40%

Electricity is both a way that energy is consumed and a way that it is _________.

supplied

In order for a nation to participate in the Industrial Revolution, they had to have what resource?

coal deposits

Which country has the highest per capita energy use for transportation?

United States

Transcontinental pipelines that are currently used to transport natural gas were originally constructed when and to do what?

to transport oil during WW2

What is the correct historical sequence of fuel use in the U.S. from 1800 to the present?

wood,coal,oil,gas

What consumer good is responsible for creating jobs, increasing energy consumption, and altering people's lifestyle?

the automobile

Almost all electrical energy is produced as a result of ___________?

burning fossil fuels

About 80% of China's population use what type of fuel to produce energy?

biomass

What type of current commercially available car engine is the only one with zero emissions?

electrical

What percent of electricity in the United States is generated by nuclear power plants?

20%

During what season of the year is the demand for gasoline highest in the United States?

the Summer

Over half of world energy is consumed by 25 countries who are members of which
organization?

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

During what geologic time period, were the conditions in the world were conducive to the formation of large deposits of fossil fuels?

Carboniferous

What is the relationship between the price of energy and the price of goods and services?

the higher the price of energy, the higher price of goods

World War II caused an ______ in energy demand for manufacturing and transportation

increase

Analysts predict that the worldwide demand for energy will ________ in the future.

increase

Since 1999 oil prices have become increasingly volatile. How have China and India impacted oil prices?

they have caused an increase in price due to their high demand

Why has there been a major increase in the use of natural gas in the United States?

viable alternative to oil and less pollution

Approximately ______ of the energy used in a typical household is used to heat water.

17%

In North America, roughly 5% of the world's population, consumes _______ of the gasoline produced in the world by private automobile use.

40%

How have many cities around the globe attempted to reduce the congestion from automobiles?

passed regulations that use financial or other means to discourage automobile traffic in highly congested areas

What are ways to save energy at home?

...

What is hydraulic fracturing or "hydrofracking" used for and why are government officials hesitant to move forward with hydraulic fracturing of shale to obtain natural gas?

used to extract natural gas from shale
Concern=Hydraulic fracturing requires one to five million gallons of water per well

What is the primary source of energy in much of the developing world?

fossil fuels

What percentage of the world's commercial energy is furnished by fossil fuels?

80%

Fossil-fuel such as "peat" (peat moss) deposits are recent collections of organic material that are little changed and contain what percentage of water?

approximately 70%

Why is oil transported in liquid form?

easily transported through pipelines

Alaska relies on oil for about _____ percent of its revenue.

80%

The Middle East has about _____ percent of the world's oil reserves.

55%

Which fossil fuel is the most abundant?

coal

How is ethanol produced and what crops are used?

ferment corn or wheat

Large accumulations of decayed plant materials form which resource?

coal

What are the disadvantages of coal mining?

landscape disturbance, acid mine drainage, air pollution

Which form of coal is relatively abundant and most widely used?

Bituminous

Which type of coal has the least amount of moisture and the greatest amount of fixed carbon?

anthracite

surface mining

process of removing material on top of a vein, efficient but destructive.

underground mining

vertical shaft is used to extract coal. minimizes surface disturbance but costly and dangerous

acid mine drainage

A kind of pollution, associated with coal mines, in which bacteria convert the sulfur in coal into compounds that form sulfuric acid.

secondary recovery

Water or gas is pumped into a well to drive the oil out of the pores in the rock

off shore drilling

used to reach oil located under ocean floor

geothermal extraction

power derived from Earth's internal heat

How is liquefied natural gas formed?

by cooling the gas which in turn forms condensation and turns liquid

Hydroelectric power plants are most commonly located near _________.

a body of water

Why was the building of the Tellico Dam in Tennessee delayed?

the threat of fish extinction

What are the major causes of desertification?

lower developed countries need fuelwood to heat therefore desertification occurs, too many livestock on too little land,inappropriate irrigation practices

What are different types of biomass?

wood, grass, agricultural waste, and dung

What substances are released when waste materials, such as paper and plastics, are burned?

carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons

The term "mining heat" refers to which power source?

geothermal

Solar, geothermal, and tidal energy are forms of ________ resources.

renewable

Which three states in the United States have the greatest potential to use hydroelectric power?

Idaho, Oregon, Washington

What environmental problems are associated with large hydroelectric dams?

the flooding of vast areas of land, effects migration of fish, effects quality of water, few health hazards

The best sites for tidal hydroelectric plants have what characteristics?

a difference between high and low tides of at least 16 feet is required(only 40 sites around world)

Which country has the largest active tidal generating station?

France

Which country has half of the world's geothermal electrical generating capacity?

United States

Reykjavik, the capital city of Iceland, heats its buildings from geothermal sources at a cost that is _______ of what it would be if oil were used.

25%

What environmental problems are associated with geothermal energy?

unpleasant form of air pollution,minerals in the steam corrode pipes and equipment,toxic to fish if wastewater is discharged into local bodies of water.

The world's fastest growing energy resource since the late 1990's is ________.

wind

What environmental problems are associated with wind power

ugly sight, birds might get caught, noisy

Which type of technology converts light energy directly into electricity?

solar power

Black lung disease is a hazard of working in what type of environment or job?

underground mining

Why was oil originally chosen as an alternative to coal?

easier to transport

What are requirements for tidal energy development?

a difference between high and low tides of at least 16 feet is required(only 40 sites around world)

Is the burning of solid waste a major source of energy in industrialized countries?

No it's mostly used in less-developed countries such as Bangladesh

Do energy conservation methods require a change in the standard of living?

to a degree, it's more expensive

In some areas of the world, streams have a steep gradient and constant flow of water so __________ may be generated without a reservoir.

electricity

China's rapid industrial development is _________ its energy supply.

outstripping

The vast majority of the oil entering the oceans results from what sources?

originated from microscopic marine organisms

Radioactive waste is categorized in _____ general categories.

three

What are forms of electromagnetic radiation?

gamma,alpha,beta

What was the first goal for developing nuclear energy?

to create nuclear weapons

The first controlled nuclear chain reaction occurred at Stag Field in Chicago in 1942 which lead directly to ____________.

atomic bombs dropped on Japan

As of 2006 there were ____ nuclear power plants under construction in eleven countries.

24

One of the greatest terrorism-related nuclear threats is from ______________.

radiological dispersal devices (RDDs), or dirty bombs. They cause panic, not numerous deaths.

Uranium mining and milling waste contains low levels of ____________.

radioactivity

Public acceptance of nuclear power plants has been declining because of expensive ___________.

disposal process

The Hanford plutonium and uranium production facility was important for what reason?

dumping into Colombia River

What is the name of the process in which the fuel is removed from a nuclear plant, its surfaces are cleaned, and people are permanently prevented from coming in contact with the building?

decommissioning

As fission occurs in a nuclear reactor the concentration of U-235 atoms does what?

decreases

Which one of the process involves increasing the U-235 content of the ore from 0.7% to 3%?

enrichment

How much of the heat generated in a nuclear power plant is waste heat?

3/4

What are the biological effects of ionizing radiation?

damage to DNA, mutations, damage to molecules in cells

Which cancer is strongly linked to increased radiation exposure?

leukemia

Which type of waste will be placed in underground tunnels at Yucca Mountain, Nevada if the siting is completed?

nuclear waste

In what two countries have nuclear power accidents had the greatest effect on people's attitudes towards safety?

U.S and Ukraine

Radioactive waste from the Hanford Plant in Washington leaked 150 square miles into __________,__________,_____________.

the colombia river

What type of cancer in children has now been found to be associated with Chernobyl?

thyroid

Current development and construction of nuclear power plants is occurring mostly in which geographic region?

Asia

What type of fission reactor designed to produce radioactive fuel from nonradioactive uranium?

nuclear breeder reactor

Which type of reactor uses ordinary water as a coolant?

boiling water reactor

____________ is the process whereby two lightweight atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus.

nuclear fusion

A nuclear power plant could not operate effectively or safely without a source of _________.

coolant

The political disintegration of the ________and _______ has made large numbers of nuclear weapons unnecessary.

soviet union eastern europe

Each step in the nuclear fuel cycle poses a _________exposure problem.

potential

The nuclear power industry has trouble disposing of ___________, even with new technology.

nuclear waste

Most experts feel that the best solution for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste is to _______________________________.

busy in a stable geological formation

Nuclear power plants do not produce carbon dioxide, and therefore __________ to global climate change.

don't contribute

With increasing oil costs, global warming issues, and other factors, interest in nuclear power has _________ in some countries.

increased

___________ will probably continue to be a part of energy production, particularly in countries that lack fossil-fuel reserves.

nuclear energy

Pollution _____________ with population density.

increases

Genetic diversity is influenced by what factors?

migration, sexual reproduction, population size, bio diversity number and different kinds of genes in the population

Why do waterfowl present special wildlife management problems?

migratory

Why are sport hunting seasons regulated to the fall?

...

What do fish require for a healthy population?

nutrients

What does a red-cockaded woodpecker need that it cannot get from a well-managed forest plantation?

dead trees to provide nesting

Distinguish between the different harvesting methods of mature trees: clear-cutting; selective harvesting; patchwork clear-cutting;

clear cutting: removal of all trees in an area
selective harvesting: single species tree harvesting
patchwork:

What are the various techniques for managing wildlife?

...

List why certain species are more likely to become extinct and give examples of these species.

cheetah b/c of the hour glass effect

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