(AP Human Geog.)Key Terms and Ideas from Chapters 2 and 3
|Census||A periodic and official count of a country's population.|
|Demography|| The study of population |
*Population geographers work with demographers.
|Overpopulation|| The population of an area in too large numbers.|
*When the resources and facilities of a country or region become scarce and are not enough to support a population.
|Global Density||The total number/ratio of people on Earth.|
|Arithmetic Density|| The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area.|
*Derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers/meters that make up the unit.
|Physiological Density||The number of people per unit area of arable land (agriculturally productive land)|
|Agricultural Density||The total amount/ratio of farmable land in a country, region, or in the world.|
|Crude Birth Rate||The number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population.|
|Crude Death Rate||The number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population.|
|Rate of Natural Increase|| The percent growth of a population in a year.|
* Computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
|Doubling Time||The time required for a population to double in size.|
|Total Fertility Rate||The rate at which a population neither grows nor shrinks.|
|Infant Mortality Rate||A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population.|
|Life Expectancy|| A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live.|
*Normally expressed in the context of a particular state.
|Demographic Transition Model||The sequence of stages in popualtion growth.|
|Agricultural Revolution||A breakthrough in agriculture|
|Medical Revolution||A breakthrough in medicine and cures.|
|Zero Population Growth||There's no population growth.|
|Population Pyramid||Used to represent age and gender, the key indicators of population, visually.|
|Dependency Ratio|| Age population ratios of those typically not in the labor force.|
* Population Pyramids show dependency ratios of fewer than 15 and over 65.
|Sex Ratio||The ratio of males versus females.|
|Thomas Malthus|| 1. Wrote "Principles of Population" and predicted that the population would outrun food supplies, leading to a decrease in food per person.|
2. Assumed that populations grow exponentially, food supplies grow arithmetically, and food shortages along with chaos are inevitable.
|Infanticide||The act or practice of killing a newborn infant.|
|Population Control Policies (PCP) - Expansive||Encourages large families and raises the rate of natural increase.|
|PCP - Eugenic||Designed to favor one ratial or cultural sector of the population over others.|
|PCP - Restrictive|| Seeks to reduce the rate of natural increase.|
* Ranges from toleration of officially unapproved means of birth control to outright prohibition of large families.
|Migration||A change in residence that's intended to be permanent.|
|Forced Migration||Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.|
|Chain Migration||When a migrant communicates to family and friends at home, encouraging further migration along the same path, along kinship links.|
|Internal Migration||Movement within a single country's borders (implying a degree of permanence)|
|International Migration||Movement across country borders (Implying a degree of permanence)|
|Step Migration||When a migrant follows a path of a series of stages or steps toward a final destination.|
|Voluntary Migration|| Migrants weigh the push and pull factors to decide...|
1. to emmigrate from the home country
2. where to go
|Emmigration||The process of migrating away from a country or area.q|
|Immigration||The process of migrating into a particular country or area.|
|Net - Migration||The difference between the total number of arrivals and that of departures that occur in a country or region.|
|Mobility|| The ability to communicate.|
*Your activity space.
- Ex : cell phones, laptops, iPods, internet
|Circulation||The spreading or transmission of something to a wider group of people or area.|
|Seasonal Mobility||Migration based on the changing seasons (similar to birds)|
|Pull Factors|| The circumstances that effectively attract the migrant to certain locales from other places|
* The decision of where to go
|Push Factors||The conditions and perceptions that help the migrant decide to leave a place.|
|Refugees||People who flee across an international boundary because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership, of a particular social group, or political opinion.|
|Floodplain||A region or area affected by a massive flood.|
|Interregional Migration||Migration within a country|
|Intraregional Migration||Migration outside a country|
|Migration Transition||Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.|
|E.G. Ravenstein||Created/ thought of the Laws of Migration|
|Coyote||Someone who helps sneak illegal immigrants across a country's borders.|
|Quota||Established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter the country each year.|
|U.S. Immigration and Nationalization Service||The process of becoming an American citizen.|
|U.S. Border Control||The mobile law enforcement arm of the Immigration and Naturalization Service that detects and prevents illegal entry of aliens into the United States|
|Intervening Obstacles||Obstacles that get in the way of migration.|
|Brain Drain||When a country allows only those with a specific amount of intelligence or "smarts" to enter their country.|
|Guest Workers||Legal immigrants who have work visas - usually short term|
|Counter Urbanization||A demographic and social process whereby people move form urban areas to rural areas|