# (AP Human Geog.)Key Terms and Ideas from Chapters 2 and 3

### 55 terms by silent-beauty

#### Study  only

Flashcards Flashcards

Scatter Scatter

Scatter Scatter

## Create a new folder

### Census

A periodic and official count of a country's population.

### Demography

The study of population
*Population geographers work with demographers.

### Overpopulation

The population of an area in too large numbers.
*When the resources and facilities of a country or region become scarce and are not enough to support a population.

### Global Density

The total number/ratio of people on Earth.

### Arithmetic Density

The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area.
*Derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers/meters that make up the unit.

### Physiological Density

The number of people per unit area of arable land (agriculturally productive land)

### Agricultural Density

The total amount/ratio of farmable land in a country, region, or in the world.

### Crude Birth Rate

The number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population.

### Crude Death Rate

The number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population.

### Rate of Natural Increase

The percent growth of a population in a year.
* Computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.

### Doubling Time

The time required for a population to double in size.

### Total Fertility Rate

The rate at which a population neither grows nor shrinks.

### Infant Mortality Rate

A figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population.

### Life Expectancy

A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live.
*Normally expressed in the context of a particular state.

### Demographic Transition Model

The sequence of stages in popualtion growth.

### Agricultural Revolution

A breakthrough in agriculture

### Medical Revolution

A breakthrough in medicine and cures.

### Zero Population Growth

There's no population growth.

### Population Pyramid

Used to represent age and gender, the key indicators of population, visually.

### Dependency Ratio

Age population ratios of those typically not in the labor force.
* Population Pyramids show dependency ratios of fewer than 15 and over 65.

### Sex Ratio

The ratio of males versus females.

### Thomas Malthus

1. Wrote "Principles of Population" and predicted that the population would outrun food supplies, leading to a decrease in food per person.
2. Assumed that populations grow exponentially, food supplies grow arithmetically, and food shortages along with chaos are inevitable.

### Infanticide

The act or practice of killing a newborn infant.

### Population Control Policies (PCP) - Expansive

Encourages large families and raises the rate of natural increase.

### PCP - Eugenic

Designed to favor one ratial or cultural sector of the population over others.

### PCP - Restrictive

Seeks to reduce the rate of natural increase.
* Ranges from toleration of officially unapproved means of birth control to outright prohibition of large families.

### Migration

A change in residence that's intended to be permanent.

### Forced Migration

Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.

### Chain Migration

When a migrant communicates to family and friends at home, encouraging further migration along the same path, along kinship links.

### Internal Migration

Movement within a single country's borders (implying a degree of permanence)

### International Migration

Movement across country borders (Implying a degree of permanence)

### Step Migration

When a migrant follows a path of a series of stages or steps toward a final destination.

### Voluntary Migration

Migrants weigh the push and pull factors to decide...
1. to emmigrate from the home country
2. where to go

### Emmigration

The process of migrating away from a country or area.q

### Immigration

The process of migrating into a particular country or area.

### Net - Migration

The difference between the total number of arrivals and that of departures that occur in a country or region.

### Mobility

The ability to communicate.
- Ex : cell phones, laptops, iPods, internet

### Circulation

The spreading or transmission of something to a wider group of people or area.

### Seasonal Mobility

Migration based on the changing seasons (similar to birds)

### Pull Factors

The circumstances that effectively attract the migrant to certain locales from other places
* The decision of where to go

### Push Factors

The conditions and perceptions that help the migrant decide to leave a place.

### Refugees

People who flee across an international boundary because of a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership, of a particular social group, or political opinion.

### Floodplain

A region or area affected by a massive flood.

### Interregional Migration

Migration within a country

### Intraregional Migration

Migration outside a country

### Migration Transition

Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.

### E.G. Ravenstein

Created/ thought of the Laws of Migration

### Coyote

Someone who helps sneak illegal immigrants across a country's borders.

### Quota

Established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter the country each year.

### U.S. Immigration and Nationalization Service

The process of becoming an American citizen.

### U.S. Border Control

The mobile law enforcement arm of the Immigration and Naturalization Service that detects and prevents illegal entry of aliens into the United States

### Intervening Obstacles

Obstacles that get in the way of migration.

### Brain Drain

When a country allows only those with a specific amount of intelligence or "smarts" to enter their country.

### Guest Workers

Legal immigrants who have work visas - usually short term

### Counter Urbanization

A demographic and social process whereby people move form urban areas to rural areas

Example: