Role of chemotaxis
role of histamine
role of prostaglandins
role of neutrophils
role of basophils
role of eosinophils
role of monocytes
role of leukocytosis
role of phagacytosis
interpretation of WBC differential count
1st line of defense
innate resistance or natural/native immunity.
ciliated resp mucosa
gastric acid in stomach.
2nd line of defense
ex: immune factors=antibodies
phagocyte cells= macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophils.
a biochemical and cellular process that occurs in vascularized tissue following exposure to an antigen or foreign substance. Also can be triggered by presence of dead cells.
the earliest facilitators of inflammation increase the movement of plasma and blood cells from the circulation into tissues surrounding the injury. serve to: defend the host against infection and facilitate tissue repair/healing.
difference between vascular effects of inflammation and immune response?
VEI- immediate and in seconds
IR- takes days to develop
how does inflammation occur?
1. arterioles around injury constrict the dilate, increasing flow to the inflamed site.
2. increases pressure in the capillaries, increase the exudation of plasma/blood cell into the tissue (edema/swelling)
3. as plasma moves outward, blood remaining in the capillaries flows more slowly and becomes viscous.--warmth and redness
what do leukocytes do in inflammation
migrate to vessel walls and adhere and penetrate by squeezing through spaces created by endothelial reactions
FIRST RESPONDER. phagocytic leukocytes. ingest bacteria, deal cells, and cellular debris- then they die and are removed as pus thru the skin or lymph nodes. arrive 6-12 hours of injury
the mast cell
FIRST RESPONDER. the most important activator of the inflammatory response. filled with granules. in response to a stimulus biologically active molecules are released from mast cells within seconds and act immediately.
mast cell degranulation
1. releases histamine
2. release chemotactic factors- chemotaxis
released from mast cell degranulation. causes rapid increased blood flow to area via vasodilation. increases capillary permeability so neutrophils and other responders can invade site.
released from mast cell degranulation. causes the directional movement of cells toward the site of inflammation.
monocytes- an immature form of WBCs. and macrophages. perform many of the same functions as neutrophils but for a longer time and later in the inflammatory response.
control inflammatory response or act directly against parasites (bodys primary defense against parasites.)
act as mast cells. found in inflamed tissue
stop bleeding if vascular injury has occurred. found in inflamed tissue.
how fast do 2nd responders take to respond?
24-3/4 days after injury has occurred.
erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocytes, granulocytes ..??
RBCS. most abundant cells in blood. function=tissue oxygenation. life span=120 days
normal values for erythrocytes
production of erythrocytes is controlled by this. secreted by the kidneys in response to tissue hypoxia.
2 fold action in response to hypoxia?
1. high resp rate= high oxygen intake
2. high oxygen carrying capacity of the blood thru high erythropoiesis.
a solution containing protein found in the erythrocytes cytoplasm. gas carrying component. biconcavity- provides a surface area for gas exchange. reversible deformability (flexible)
how does altitude affect Hgb?
causes a high Hgb.
normal value for Hgb
f: 12-16 g/dL
m: 14-18 g/dL
% of a given volume of blood thats occupied by erythrocytes. varies with altitude.
normal values for hematocrit
abnormalities in hematocrit caused by?
hemorrhage, anemia, leukemia.
defend the body against organisms that cause infection. transported in the circulation but act primarily in the tissues. ALL LEUKOCYTES FUNCTION AS PHAGOCYTES.
two types of leukocytes?
granulocytes and agranulocytes.
normal lab values for leukocytes?
characterized by the presence of stainable granules in the cytoplasm. contain enzymes capable of killing microorganisms. also contain biochemical mediators with inflammatory/immune functions. ameboid movement allows migration thru vessel wall.
immature neutrophils are called?
slide 25/26/27 ***
natural killer cells
the primary function: to recognize and eliminate cells infected with viruses and abnormal hosts, specifically cancer cells.
characterized by the absence of cytoplasmic granules. includes lymphocytes and monocytes.
b cells (lymphocyte)
make antibodies that bind pathogens to enable their destruction. function in antibody memory.
coordinate the immune response. function in antibody memory. persist long after infection has resolved. responsible for cell mediated destruction of tumor cells or cells infected with viruses.
share the phagocytic function of neutrophils. much longer lived. work with t-cells in antibody memory.
live 10 days, removed by macrophages in the spleen, essential for blood coagulation
normal values for platelets?
cytoplasmic granules contain an abundant mixture of chemical mediators including histamine. most important activator of the inflammatory response. act rapidly to make blood vessels more permeable.
basophil count during infection?
unaffected. number isnt raised or lowered.
"shift to the left" **?
high immature neutrophils (bands or stab cells.) increased during acute infection
WBC hgb/hct platelet count.
what are two other proteins that help regulate the inflammation process
1. signal blood cells and vascular endothelium to coagulate and fill in the wound.
2. signal macrophages and neutrophils ton engulf microbes
3. guide protective skin epidermal cell to grow over wound area
4. sometimes can stimulate production of new skin cells, blood vessels, conn tissue, and bone.
what do platelets release in response to injury?
appear to be most important in the later stages of the inflammatory response, they stimulate slower and longer
produced by the mast cells from arachidonic acid. induces pain.
what do plasma protein systems do?
direct/control any inflammatory response- all activate proenzymes. include: the complement system, the clotting system, the kinin system
the complement system
comprised of at least 10 proteins. most important system. once it becomes activated its components participate in virtually every aspect of the inflammatory process. activated by antigen-antibody complexes that are released during bacterial invasion.
are among the bodys most important and potent defenders against bacterial invasion.
part of the innate immune system. complements the ability of antibodies to clear pathogens from an organism
coat bacteria and increase their susceptibility to be eaten (phagocytosis)
functions of complement cascade:
opsonization, chemotaxis, lysis, clumps, alters.
The clotting system
forms a fibrous meshwork at the site of inflammation to trap exudates, microorganisms and foreign bodies.
purposes of clotting system:
-prevents the spread of inflammation to adjacent areas
-keeps microorganisms in the area where theres the greatest number of phagocytes
- FORMS A CLOT/FIBRIN TO STOP BLEEDING.
The kinin system
at low concentrations causes vessel dilation and acts as a prostaglandin to induce pain.
-acts more slowly and is long acting. causes endothelial cell retraction and high vascular permeability as prostaglandins do.
bradykinin- kinins are rapidly broken down and are controlled by kininases.
restoration of original structure and function
when is outcome of healing to complete normal structure and function possible?
if damage is minor
if NO complications occur
if destroyed tissue is able to regenerate.
acute inflammation stage
tissue destruction is followed by a period of healing that begins during this period. may not be complete for 2 years. releases cytokines (stuff inside mast cells.)
the replacement of destroyed tissue with scar tissue composed of collagen. the lesion is filled in but is incapable of carrying out its usual physiological function. happen when-abscess forms/fibrin persists in lesion/scar tissue
when do regeneration and repair begin?
inflammatory process with phagocytosis of particulate matter.
involves dissolving fibrin clots or "scabs" by fibrinolytic enzymes.
-vascular dilation/permeability are reversed. blood flow to area returns to normal= decreased warmth and swelling
process of scar tissue:
1. fill in the wound
2. cover or seal the wound
3. shrink the wound
heals primarily thru the process of collagen synthesis- since sealing has been facilitated very little formation of epithelial cells and min shrinkage or contraction of tissue required
clean incision wounds heals by:
healing of open wounds requiring more tissue replacement and scar formation takes longer.
resolution and repair occur in two overlapping phases
1. reconstructive phase- proliferation. 3-4 days after until 2 weeks
2. maturation phase- remodeling. several weeks after injury and completed within 2 years
impedes healing. clot high amount of space granulation tissue must fill in. blood=good place to grow bacteria. hemorrhage prolongs healing because these cells must be cleared b4 repair
blood cell production.
fetus- occurs in liver/spleen
after birth- in bone marrow
stem cell system
totipotential hematopoetic stem cells develop into many types of blood cells called pluripotential stem cell. then develop into T and B cells which respond to specific antigens
the most primitive cell in the stem cell system?
totipotential hematopoetic stem cell
diff btw B/T cells and cells in inflammation?
1. antigen specific- B cells produce antibodies and T cells attack antigen
2. have memory
without antigens there are low counts of t/b cells in body. but once antigens are present theres a large increase of the levels. memory process.
functions of exudate
1. dilute toxins produced by bacteria
2. carry plasma proteins and leukocytes
3. carry away bacterial toxins, dead cells.
treatment of inflammation
2. antipyretics- tylenol/aspirin
4. COX-2 inhibitors
antihistamine receptor antagonist for allergic response where theres release of mast cells, basophils, and histamine
for allergy, inflammation, and autoimmune problems/response
sequence of acute inflammation
1. arterioles near injury constrict then dilate= increase blood flow to area then swelling
2. neutrophils arrive
3. monocytes and macrophages come, same function as neutrophils but last longer
systemic symptoms of acute inflammation?
2. leukocytosis- increased WBCs. "shift to left" high immature neutrophils (bends/stabs)
3. increase in plasma proteins- from liver called acute phase reactants (fibrinogens)
diff from acute is that it last for weeks or longer. why? acute is ineffective, some microorganisms have difficult cell walls, resistant microorganisms can live inside macrophages, some produce tissue damaging toxins after killed.
form when body attempts to wall off an area of chronic inflammation- dense area filled with lymphocytes and macrophages becomes contained by large epithelial cells that engulf the area and eventually calcify.
metabolic arthritis. when the blood has an elevated concentration of uric acid, crystals are deposited in the cartilage/tissue surrounding joints. ex of chronic inflam.