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Magnifying powers of a microscope

4x, 10x, 45x, 100x (oil immersion)

Care and cleaning of a microscope

1) carry the microscope by holding on to the arm and base; 2) use the course knob only with low power; 3) clean the lenses with lens paper and distilled water (use alcohol ONLY if oil was used); 4) always leave the lowest power lens when putting away

The metric units used in microscopy

meter, gram, liter, and Celsius

plasma membrane

cell component that gives form and controls passage of materials into and out of cell

cytoplasm

cell component that serves as matrix substance in which chemical reactions occur

endoplasmic reticulum

cell component that metabolizes nonpolar compounds and stores Ca² in striated muscle cells, granular (rough) endoplasmic reticulum assists in protein synthesis

ribosomes

cell component that synthesizes proteins

golgi complex

cell component that synthesizes carbohydrates and packages molecules for secretion, secretes lipids and glycoproteins

mitochondria

cell component that release energy from from food molecules and transform energy into usable ATP

lysosomes

cell component that digest foreign molecules and worn and damaged organelles

peroxisomes

cell component that contain enzymes that detoxify harmful molecules and break down hydrogen peroxide

centrosome

cell component that helps organize spindle fibers and distribute chromosomes during mitosis

vacuoles

cell component that store and release various substances within the cytoplasm

microfilaments and microtubules

cell component that support cytoplasm and transport materials within the cytoplasm

cilia and flagella

cell component that move particles along cell surface or move the cell

nuclear envelope

cell component that supports nucleus and controls passage of materials between nucleus and cytoplasm

nucleolus

cell component that produces ribosomal RNA for ribosomes

chromatin

cell component that contains genetic code that determines which proteins will be manufactured by the cell

mitosis

the type of cell division that occurs when organs grow or cells within organs need to be replaced

meiosis

the type of cell division that only occurs in the gonads for the production of gametes

prophase

the stage of meiosis when the nuclear membrane disappears; spindles appear

metaphase

the stage of meiosis when the duplicated chromosomes separate and are pulled toward the centrioles

anaphase

the stage of meiosis when chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell

telophase

the stage of meiosis when chromosomes elongate into chromatin threads; nuclear membranes and nucleoli reappear

tissue

cells that are similar in structure and work together to perform a specialized activity

organ

groups or tissue integrated to perform one or more common functions

connective tiisue

has abundant amounts of extracellular material or matrix; examples are tendons and ligaments

homeostasis

the dynamic constancy of the internal environment

negative feedback mechanism

a control system where a stimulus initiates a response that reverses or reduces the stimulus, thereby stopping the response until the stimulus occurs again

positive feedback mechanism

homeostatic control mechanism that increases the stimulus to push the variable farther from its originial value

set point

the normal value

action potential

the electrical events conducted along the cell membrane that stimulate contraction; releases acetylcholine (ACh)

excitation-contraction coupling

the neurotransmitter chemical that stimulates contraction of skeletal muscles

twitch

a rapid contraction found stimulation

summation

the fiber twitches of different motor neurons

tetanus

maintenance of a sustained muscle contraction

muscle fatigue

sustained muscular spasm; causes are depletion of muscle glycogen and reduced ability of the sarcoplasm

brownian movement

the zigzag movement of the larger particles

diffusion

the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration

osmosis

the diffusion of water from a region , diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal

dialysis

the process of osmosis through non-living membrane

hemolysis

Destruction of red blood cells; hypotonic

isotonic

contains the same amount of solutes as the red blood cells

hypertonic

contains more solutes and less water than in the red blood cells

hypotonic

contains no solutes, therefore 100% water

filtration

the process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane from higher pressure into an area of lower pressure

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