APUSH Term Sheet 4

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60 terms · 4th term sheet

XYZ affair

a diplomatic incident in which American envoys to France were told that the United States would have to loan France money and bribe government officials as a precondition for negotiation

Alien and Sedition Acts

collectively, the four acts- Alien Act, Alien Enemies Act, Naturalization Act, and Sedition Act- passed by Congress in 1798 designed to prevent immigrants from participating in politics and to silence the anti-Federal press.

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

Statements that the Virginia and Kentucky legislatures issued in 1798 in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts; they asserted the right of states to overrule the federal government

interposition

To place a barrier between two objects or forces; to Jefferson, the principle of interposition meant that states had the right to use their sovereign power as a barrier between the federal government and the states; citizens when the natural rights of those citizens were at risk.

Judiciary Act of 1801

Law that the Federalist Congress passed to increase the number of federal courts and judicial positions; President John Adams rushed to fill these positions with Federalists before his term ended.

midnight judges

The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.

John Fries

Leader of Fries Rebellion- tax revolt by Pennsylvanians that was suppressed by federal force. Fries condemned to death but given presidential pardon.

"Revolution of 1800"

Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."

Marbury v. Madison (1803)

Supreme Court decision declaring part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional, thereby establishing an important precedent in favor of judicial review.

Fletcher v. Peck (1810)

Supreme Court case growing out of the Yazoo affair in which the majority ruled that the original land sale contract rescinded by the Georgia legislature was binding, establishing the superiority of contracts over legislation.

Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)

Supreme Court case in which the majority ruled that private contracts are sacred and cannot be modified by state legislatures

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

Supreme Court case in which the majority ruled that federal authority is superior to that of individual states and that states cannot control or tax federal operations within their borders.

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

Supreme Court case in which the majority ruled that the authority of Congress is absolute in matters of interstate commerce.

John Marshall

Virginia lawyer and politician whom President John Adams made chief justice of the Supreme Court; his legal decisions helped shape the role of the Supreme Court in American government

Louisiana Purchase

the U.S. purchase of Louisiana from France for $15 million in 1803; the Louisiana Territory extended from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.

Lewis and Clark Expedition

an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States

17. Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture

Black revolutionary who liberated the island of Santo Domingo in 1791, only to see it reinvaded by the French in 1802.

Aaron Burr

New York lawyer and vice-presidential candidate in 1796; he became Thomas Jefferson's vice president in 1801 afther the House of Representatives broke a deadlock in the Electoral College.

precedent

event or decision that may be used as an example in similar cases later on.

Judicial Review

the power of the Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress and by the states.

Albert Gallatin

Treasury secretary in Jefferson's administration; he favored limited government and reduced the federal debt by cutting spending.

Eleventh Amendment

1795, response to Chisholm v. Georgia, states may not be sued in federal court by citizens of another state or country w/out consent of states being sued

Twelfth Amendment

Ratified in 1804, provides for separate balloting in the Electoral College for president and vice president

Berlin Decree

Napoleon's order declaring the British Isles under blockade and authorizing the confiscation of British goods from any ship found carrying them

Embargo Act of 1807

Embargo (a government ordered trade ban) announced by Jefferson in order to pressure Britain and France to accept neutral trading rights; it went into effect in 1808 and closed down all U.S. foreign trade.

Non-Intercourse Act

Law passed by Congress in 1809 reopening trade with all nations except France and Britain and authorizing the president to reopen trade with them if they lifted restrictions on American shipping.

Macon's Bill no. 2

Law passed by Congress in 1810 that offered exclusive trading rights to France or Britain, whichever recognized American neutral rights first.

Impressment

Procedure permitted under British maritime law that authorized commanders of warships to force English civilian sailors into military service.

"The Prophet"

Shawnee religious visionary who called for a return to Indian traditions and founded the community of Prophetstown on Tippecanoe Creek in Indiana.

Tecumseh

Shawnee leader and brother of The Prophet; he established an Indian confederacy along the frontier that he hoped would be a barrier to white expansion.

Battle of Tippecanoe

Battle near Prophetstown in 1811, where American forces led by William Henry Harrison defeated the followers of the Shawnee Prophet and destroyed the town.

William Henry Harrison

was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.

War Hawks

Members of Congress elected in 1810 from the West and South who campaigned for war with Britain in the hopes of stimulating the economy and annexing new territory.

Daniel Webster

Massachusetts senator and lawyer who was known for his forceful speeches and considered nullification a threat to the Union.

John C. Calhoun

Congressman from South Carolina who was a leader of the War hawks and the author of the official declaration of war in 1812.

Henry Clay

United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852). Admitted Maine into the union as a free state and Missouri into the union as a slave state.

Francis Scott Key

Author of "The Star-Spangled Banner" which chronicles the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in 1814; Key's poem, set to music, became the official U.S. national anthem in 1931.

Oliver Hazard Perry

American naval officer who led the fleet that defeated the British in the Battle of Put-in-Bay during the War of 1812.

Treaty of Ghent

Treaty ending the war of 1812, signed in Belgium in 1814; it restored peace but was silent on the issues over which the United State and Britain had gone to war.

Battle of New Orleans

Battle in the War of 1812 in which American troops commanded by Andrew Jackson destroyed the British force attempting to seize New Orleans.

Andrew Jackson

General who defeated the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in 1814 and the British at New Orleans in 815; he later became the seventh president of the United States.

Hartford Convention

Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence

Rush-Bagot Agreement

a treaty between the United States and Britain enacted in 1817. The treaty provided for the demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained. The treaty laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the U.S. and British North America.

Democrat-Repubilicans

Political organizations formed in 1793 and 1934 to demand greater responsiveness by the state and federal governments to the needs of the citizens.

James Monroe

Republican politician from Virginia who served in diplomatic posts under George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson; he later became the fifth president of the United States.

"Era of Good Feelings"

The period from 1816 to 1823, when the decline of the Federalist Party and the end of the War of 1812 gave rise to a time of political cooperation.

Monroe Doctrine

announcement by President James Monroe in 1823 that the Western Hemisphere was off=limits for future European colonial expansion.

National Road

First national road building project funded by Congress. It made travel and transportation of goods much easier because it was one continuous road that was in good condition.

Erie Canal

a 350-mile canal stretching from Buffalo to Albany; it revolutionized shipping in New York state.

Robert Fulton

American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)

Internal Improvements

federal projects, such as canals and roads, to develop the nation's transportation system

American System

an economic plan sponsored by nationalists in Congress following the War of 1812; it was intended to capitalize on regional differences to spur U.S. economic growth and the domestic production of goods previously bought from foreign manufacturers.

Adams-Onis Treaty

Treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the United States, ended any Spanish claims in Oregon, and recognized Spanish rights in the American Southwest.

Noah Webster

American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.

Washington Irving

American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book

James Fenimore Cooper

American novelist who is best remembered for his novels of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans

Hudson River School

the first native school of landscape painting in the United States (1825-1875); it attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition.

Panic of 1819

a financial panic that began when the Second Bank of the United States tightened credit and recalled government loans.

Missouri Compromise

law proposed by Henry Clay in 1820 admitting Missouri to the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state and banning slavery in the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 36 30'

Tallmadge Incident

an amendment to a statehood bill for Missouri proposed by New York congressman James Tallmadge Jr. that would have banned slavery from the new state; it created a deadlock in Congress that necessitated the Missouri Compromise.

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