Concerning the internal affairs of a country
In politics, a person appointed by the head of the state to take charge of some department agency of government
a civil official charged with upholding the law, often exercising both judicial and executive power
A farmer of agricultural laborer, sometime legally tied to the land
coureurs des bois
French-Canadian fur trappers; literally, "runners of the wood"
French-Canadian fur traders and adventurers
Concerning the relations between the biological organisms of their environment
Concerning revolt by subordinate soldiers or seamen against their commanding officers
Concerning the placement and planned movement of large-scale military forces so as to gain advantage, usually prior to actual engagement with the enemy
Unconventional combat wagged by smaller military units using hit-and-run tactics
A territory between two hostile states, designed to soften an attack from one or the other side
A military operation surrounding and attacking a fortified place, often over a sustained period
A fleet of boats, usually smaller vessels
Trained professional soldiers, as distinct from militia or conscripts
An official certification granting a commanding rank in the armed forces
French Protestants who were granted toleration by the Edict of Nantes in 1598 but not permitted to settle in New France.
King Louis XIV
Absolute French monarch who reigned for seventy-two years.
Animal whose pelt provided great profits for the French empire and enhanced European fashion at enormous ecological cost.
French Catholic missionary order that explored the North American interior and sought to protect and convert the Indians.
Coureurs de Bois
Far-running, high-living French fur trappers
Part of a certain British naval officer's anatomy that set off an imperial war with Spain.
Strategic French fortress conquered by New England settlers, handed back to the French, and finally conquered again by the British in 1759.
Inland river territory, scene of fierce competition between the French and land-speculating English colonists.
Bloodiest European threater of the Seven Years' War, where Frederick the Great's troops drained French strength away from North America.
Unification effort that Benjamin Franklin nearly inspired to success by eloquent leadership and cartoon artistry.
Military aide of British General Braddock and defender of the frontier after Braddock's defeat.
The Plains of Abraham
Fortress boldly assaulted by General Wolfe, spelling doom for New France.
The "buckskin" colonial soldiers whose military success did nothing to alter British officers' contempt.
Allies of the French against the British, who continued to fight under Pontiac even after the peace settlement in 1763.
The larger European struggle of which the French and Indian War was part.
Samuel de Champlain
The Father of New France, who established a fateful alliance with the Huron Indians.
Robert de la Salle
French empire builder who explored the Mississippi basin and named it after his monarch.
Document that ended the War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne's War) and awarded Acadia to Britain
War of Austrian Succession
Conflict that started with the War of Jenkins Ear and ended with return of Louisburg to France.
Strategic French stronghold, later renamed after a great British statesman.
Militia commander whose frontier skirmish touched off a World War
Advocate of colonial unity at the unsuccessful Albany Congress.
Blundering British officer whose defeat gave the advantage to the French and Indians in the early phase of the war.
Splendid British political orator and organizer of the winning strategy against the French in the North America.
Plains of Abraham
Site of the death of Generals Wolfe and Montcalm, where France's New world empire also perished
Seven Years' War
Conflict that, in Europe, pitted France against Britain's ally Frederick the Great of Prussia.
Indian leader whose frontier uprising caused British to attempt to limit colonial frontier expansion.
Proclamation of 1763
British Document that aroused colonial anger but failed to stop frontier expansion.
Strategic French outpost at the mouth of the Mississippi River.
French colonists in Nova Scotia brutally uprooted by the victorious British & shipped to Louisiana
A system in which benefits, in including jobs, money, or protection are granted in exchange for political support
The economic theory that all parts of an economy should be coordinated for the good of the whole state
To decrease in value, as in the decline of the purchasing power of money
The constitutional right of a ruler or executive to block legislation passed by another unit of government
The complete control of a product or sphere of economic activity by a single producer or business
In British law, special administrative courts designed to handle maritime cases without a jury
The political theory that a class of persons is represented in a lawmaking body without direct vote
Pledges to boycott, or decline to purchase, certain goods from abroad
A person of mixed African and European ancestry
A customs tax on the export or import of goods
A systematic program or particular materials designed to promote certain ideas; sometimes but not always the term is used negatively, implying the use of manipulative or deceptive means
An organized refusal to deal with some person, organization, or product
An increase in the supply of currency relative to the goods available, leading to a decline in the purchasing power of money
To leave official government or military service without permission
The basic economic and political theory by which seventeenth- and eighteenth¬century European powers governed their overseas colonies
The set of Parliamentary laws, first passed in 1650, that restricted colonial trade and directed it to the benefit of Britain
The term for products, such as tobacco, that could be shipped only to England and not to foreign markets
Hated British courts in which juries were not allowed and defendants were assumed guilty until proven innocent
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
The effective form of organized colonial resistance against the Stamp Act, which made homespun clothing fashionable
The product taxed under the Townshend Acts that generated the greatest colonial resistance
Committees of Correspondence
Underground networks of communication and propaganda, established by Samuel Adams, that sustained colonial resistance
Religion that was granted toleration in the trans-Allegheny West by the Quebec Act, arousing deep colonial hostility Whigs - British political party opposed to Lord North's Tories and generally more sympathetic to the colonial cause
German mercenaries hired by George III to fight the American revolutionaries
Paper currency authorized by Congress to finance the Revolution depreciated to near worthlessness
Effective organization created by the First Continental Congress to provide a total, unified boycott of all British goods
Rapidly mobilized colonial militiamen whose refusal to disperse sparked the first battle of the Revolution
Popular term for British regular troops, scorned as "lobster backs" and "bloody backs" by Bostonians and other colonials
Wealthy president of the Continental Congress and "King of the Smugglers"
British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act
Legislation passed in 1765 but repealed the next year, after colonial resistance made it impossible to enforce
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Male and female organizations that enforced the nonimportation agreements, sometimes by coercive means
"Champagne Charley" Townshend
Minister whose clever attempt to impose import taxes nearly succeeded, but eventually brewed trouble for Britain
Alleged leader of radical protesters killed in Boston Massacre George III - Stubborn ruler, lustful for power, who promoted harsh ministers like Lord North Samuel Adams - Zealous defender of the common people's rights and organizer of underground propaganda committees
Boston Tea Party
Event organized by disguised "Indians" to sabotage British support of a British East India Company monopoly
Harsh measures of retaliation for a tea party, including the Boston Port Act closing that city's harbor
British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston tea Party First Continental Congress - Body led by John Adams that issued a Declaration of Rights and organized The Association to boycott all British
Marquis de Lafayette
Nineteen-year-old major general in the Revolutionary army
Baron von Steuben
Organizational genius who turned raw colonial recruits into tough, professional soldiers
Legislation that required colonists to feed and shelter British troops: disobeyed in New York and elsewhere
A professional soldier who serves in a foreign army for pay.
A formal written accusation charging someone with a crime.
A form of government characterized by absolute state power and the unlimited authority of the ruler.
A nation or person not taking sides in a war.
A citizen not in military service.
One who betrays a country by aiding an enemy.
To seize property for public use, often as a penalty.
A messenger or agent sent by a government on official business.
A mass of disorderly and crude common people.
A place for making or storing weapons and ammunition.
Concerning the belief that a country should take little or no part in foreign affairs, especially through alliances or wars.
Passed down from generation to generation.
The isolation of a place by hostile ships or troops.
A private vessel temporary authorized to capture or plunder enemy ships in wartime.
Taking advantage of one's official position to gain money or property by illegal means.
II Continental Congress
The body that chose George Washington commander of the Continental Army
The British colony that Americans invaded in hopes of adding it to the rebellious thirteen
The inflammatory pamplet that demanded independence and heaped scorn on "the Royal Brute of Great Britain"
Deceleration of Independence
The document that provided a lengthy explanation and justification of Richard Henry Lee's resolution that was passed by Congress on July 2, 1776
The them by which the American Patriots were commonly known, to distinguished them from the American "Tories"
Another name for American Tories
The church body most closely linked with Tory sentiment, except in Virgina
The river valley that was the focus of Britain's early military strategy and the scene of Burgoyne's Surrender at Saratoga in 1777
Term for the alliance of Catherine the Great of Russia and other European powers who did not declare war but assumed a hostile neutrality toward Britain
The region that saw some of the Revolution's most bitter fighting, from 1780 to 1782, between American General Greene and British General Cornwallis
"Legalized pirates," more than a thousand strong, who inflicted heavy damage on British shipping
British political party that replaced Lord North's Tories in 1782 and made a generous treaty with the United States
The western boundary of the United States established in the Treaty of Paris
The irregular American troops who played a crucial role in swaying the neutral civilian population toward the Patriot cause
The other European nation besides France and Spain that supported the American Revolution by declaring war on Britain