APUSH Unit 2 Review

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AP US History American Pageant 13th Ed. Unit 2 Review Chapters 6, 7, 8 (Vocab + Questions) ---------------------------------- Oak Park High School

domestic

Concerning the internal affairs of a country

minister

In politics, a person appointed by the head of the state to take charge of some department agency of government

magistrate

a civil official charged with upholding the law, often exercising both judicial and executive power

peasant

A farmer of agricultural laborer, sometime legally tied to the land

coureurs des bois

French-Canadian fur trappers; literally, "runners of the wood"

voyageurs

French-Canadian fur traders and adventurers

ecological

Concerning the relations between the biological organisms of their environment

mutinous

Concerning revolt by subordinate soldiers or seamen against their commanding officers

strategic

Concerning the placement and planned movement of large-scale military forces so as to gain advantage, usually prior to actual engagement with the enemy

guerilla warfare

Unconventional combat wagged by smaller military units using hit-and-run tactics

buffer

A territory between two hostile states, designed to soften an attack from one or the other side

siege

A military operation surrounding and attacking a fortified place, often over a sustained period

flotilla

A fleet of boats, usually smaller vessels

Regulars

Trained professional soldiers, as distinct from militia or conscripts

commissions

An official certification granting a commanding rank in the armed forces

Protestant Huguenots

French Protestants who were granted toleration by the Edict of Nantes in 1598 but not permitted to settle in New France.

King Louis XIV

Absolute French monarch who reigned for seventy-two years.

Beaver

Animal whose pelt provided great profits for the French empire and enhanced European fashion at enormous ecological cost.

Jesuits

French Catholic missionary order that explored the North American interior and sought to protect and convert the Indians.

Coureurs de Bois

Far-running, high-living French fur trappers

Jenkin's Ear

Part of a certain British naval officer's anatomy that set off an imperial war with Spain.

Fortress Louisburg

Strategic French fortress conquered by New England settlers, handed back to the French, and finally conquered again by the British in 1759.

Port Royal

Inland river territory, scene of fierce competition between the French and land-speculating English colonists.

Germany

Bloodiest European threater of the Seven Years' War, where Frederick the Great's troops drained French strength away from North America.

Albany Congress

Unification effort that Benjamin Franklin nearly inspired to success by eloquent leadership and cartoon artistry.

George Washington

Military aide of British General Braddock and defender of the frontier after Braddock's defeat.

The Plains of Abraham

Fortress boldly assaulted by General Wolfe, spelling doom for New France.

Roger's Rangers

The "buckskin" colonial soldiers whose military success did nothing to alter British officers' contempt.

Ottawa

Allies of the French against the British, who continued to fight under Pontiac even after the peace settlement in 1763.

Conquest

The larger European struggle of which the French and Indian War was part.

Samuel de Champlain

The Father of New France, who established a fateful alliance with the Huron Indians.

Robert de la Salle

French empire builder who explored the Mississippi basin and named it after his monarch.

Albany

Document that ended the War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne's War) and awarded Acadia to Britain

War of Austrian Succession

Conflict that started with the War of Jenkins Ear and ended with return of Louisburg to France.

Fort Duquesne

Strategic French stronghold, later renamed after a great British statesman.

George Washington

Militia commander whose frontier skirmish touched off a World War

Benjamin Franklin

Advocate of colonial unity at the unsuccessful Albany Congress.

General Braddock

Blundering British officer whose defeat gave the advantage to the French and Indians in the early phase of the war.

William Pitt

Splendid British political orator and organizer of the winning strategy against the French in the North America.

Plains of Abraham

Site of the death of Generals Wolfe and Montcalm, where France's New world empire also perished

Seven Years' War

Conflict that, in Europe, pitted France against Britain's ally Frederick the Great of Prussia.

Pontiac

Indian leader whose frontier uprising caused British to attempt to limit colonial frontier expansion.

Proclamation of 1763

British Document that aroused colonial anger but failed to stop frontier expansion.

New Orleans

Strategic French outpost at the mouth of the Mississippi River.

Acadians (Cajuns)

French colonists in Nova Scotia brutally uprooted by the victorious British & shipped to Louisiana

patronage

A system in which benefits, in including jobs, money, or protection are granted in exchange for political support

mercantilism

The economic theory that all parts of an economy should be coordinated for the good of the whole state

depreciate

To decrease in value, as in the decline of the purchasing power of money

veto

The constitutional right of a ruler or executive to block legislation passed by another unit of government

monopoly

The complete control of a product or sphere of economic activity by a single producer or business

admiralty courts

In British law, special administrative courts designed to handle maritime cases without a jury

virtual representation

The political theory that a class of persons is represented in a lawmaking body without direct vote

nonimportation agreement

Pledges to boycott, or decline to purchase, certain goods from abroad

mulatto

A person of mixed African and European ancestry

duty (duties)

A customs tax on the export or import of goods

propaganda (propagandist)

A systematic program or particular materials designed to promote certain ideas; sometimes but not always the term is used negatively, implying the use of manipulative or deceptive means

boycott

An organized refusal to deal with some person, organization, or product

inflation

An increase in the supply of currency relative to the goods available, leading to a decline in the purchasing power of money

desert

To leave official government or military service without permission

Mercantilism

The basic economic and political theory by which seventeenth- and eighteenth¬century European powers governed their overseas colonies

Navigation Acts

The set of Parliamentary laws, first passed in 1650, that restricted colonial trade and directed it to the benefit of Britain

Enumerated

The term for products, such as tobacco, that could be shipped only to England and not to foreign markets

Admiralty Court

Hated British courts in which juries were not allowed and defendants were assumed guilty until proven innocent

Virtual Representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

Boycott

The effective form of organized colonial resistance against the Stamp Act, which made homespun clothing fashionable

Tea

The product taxed under the Townshend Acts that generated the greatest colonial resistance

Committees of Correspondence

Underground networks of communication and propaganda, established by Samuel Adams, that sustained colonial resistance

Catholic

Religion that was granted toleration in the trans-Allegheny West by the Quebec Act, arousing deep colonial hostility Whigs - British political party opposed to Lord North's Tories and generally more sympathetic to the colonial cause

Hessian

German mercenaries hired by George III to fight the American revolutionaries

Continental

Paper currency authorized by Congress to finance the Revolution depreciated to near worthlessness

The Association

Effective organization created by the First Continental Congress to provide a total, unified boycott of all British goods

Minutemen

Rapidly mobilized colonial militiamen whose refusal to disperse sparked the first battle of the Revolution

Red Coats

Popular term for British regular troops, scorned as "lobster backs" and "bloody backs" by Bostonians and other colonials

John Hancock

Wealthy president of the Continental Congress and "King of the Smugglers"

George Grenville

British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act

Stamp Act

Legislation passed in 1765 but repealed the next year, after colonial resistance made it impossible to enforce

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

Male and female organizations that enforced the nonimportation agreements, sometimes by coercive means

"Champagne Charley" Townshend

Minister whose clever attempt to impose import taxes nearly succeeded, but eventually brewed trouble for Britain

Crispus Attucks

Alleged leader of radical protesters killed in Boston Massacre George III - Stubborn ruler, lustful for power, who promoted harsh ministers like Lord North Samuel Adams - Zealous defender of the common people's rights and organizer of underground propaganda committees

Boston Tea Party

Event organized by disguised "Indians" to sabotage British support of a British East India Company monopoly

Intolerable Acts

Harsh measures of retaliation for a tea party, including the Boston Port Act closing that city's harbor

Thomas Hutchinson

British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston tea Party First Continental Congress - Body led by John Adams that issued a Declaration of Rights and organized The Association to boycott all British

Marquis de Lafayette

Nineteen-year-old major general in the Revolutionary army

Baron von Steuben

Organizational genius who turned raw colonial recruits into tough, professional soldiers

Quartering Act

Legislation that required colonists to feed and shelter British troops: disobeyed in New York and elsewhere

Mercenary

A professional soldier who serves in a foreign army for pay.

Indictment

A formal written accusation charging someone with a crime.

Dictatorship

A form of government characterized by absolute state power and the unlimited authority of the ruler.

Neutral

A nation or person not taking sides in a war.

Civilian

A citizen not in military service.

Traitor

One who betrays a country by aiding an enemy.

Confiscate

To seize property for public use, often as a penalty.

Envoy

A messenger or agent sent by a government on official business.

Rabble

A mass of disorderly and crude common people.

Arsenal

A place for making or storing weapons and ammunition.

Isolationist

Concerning the belief that a country should take little or no part in foreign affairs, especially through alliances or wars.

Hereditary

Passed down from generation to generation.

Blockade

The isolation of a place by hostile ships or troops.

Privateer

A private vessel temporary authorized to capture or plunder enemy ships in wartime.

Graft

Taking advantage of one's official position to gain money or property by illegal means.

II Continental Congress

The body that chose George Washington commander of the Continental Army

Canada (Quebec)

The British colony that Americans invaded in hopes of adding it to the rebellious thirteen

Common Sense

The inflammatory pamplet that demanded independence and heaped scorn on "the Royal Brute of Great Britain"

Deceleration of Independence

The document that provided a lengthy explanation and justification of Richard Henry Lee's resolution that was passed by Congress on July 2, 1776

Whigs

The them by which the American Patriots were commonly known, to distinguished them from the American "Tories"

Loyalists

Another name for American Tories

Anglican

The church body most closely linked with Tory sentiment, except in Virgina

Hudson

The river valley that was the focus of Britain's early military strategy and the scene of Burgoyne's Surrender at Saratoga in 1777

Armed Neutrality

Term for the alliance of Catherine the Great of Russia and other European powers who did not declare war but assumed a hostile neutrality toward Britain

South

The region that saw some of the Revolution's most bitter fighting, from 1780 to 1782, between American General Greene and British General Cornwallis

Privateers

"Legalized pirates," more than a thousand strong, who inflicted heavy damage on British shipping

Whigs

British political party that replaced Lord North's Tories in 1782 and made a generous treaty with the United States

Mississippi River

The western boundary of the United States established in the Treaty of Paris

Militiamen

The irregular American troops who played a crucial role in swaying the neutral civilian population toward the Patriot cause

Holland

The other European nation besides France and Spain that supported the American Revolution by declaring war on Britain

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