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Chapter 10 Fitness & Sports

What is the name of the high energy compound that cells use directly to fuel other chemical reactions?
A) Adenosine triphosphate
B) Glucose
C) Amino acids
D) Fatty acids

A) Adenosine triphosphate

ATP and phosphocreatine are major energy sources for events lasting how long?
A) 1 minute
B) 5 minutes
C) 10 minutes
D) 30 minutes

A) 1 minute

The conversion of glucose to lactic acid is called
A) aerobic glucose breakdown.
B) anaerobic glucose breakdown.
C) aerobic glycogen breakdown.
D) anaerobic glycogen breakdown.

B) anaerobic glucose breakdown.

The difference between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis is
A) aerobic glucose breakdown uses amino acids, anaerobic does not.
B) the end product of aerobic glucose breakdown is lactic acid; the end products of anaerobic glucose breakdown are carbon dioxide and water.
C) the end products of aerobic glucose breakdown are carbon dioxide and water; the end product of anaerobic glucose breakdown is lactic acid.
D) anaerobic glucose breakdown uses oxygen, aerobic does not.

C) the end products of aerobic glucose breakdown are carbon dioxide and water; the end product of anaerobic glucose breakdown is lactic acid.

Anaerobic glucose breakdown provides most of the energy for sports activities lasting
A) 10 seconds.
B) up to 30 seconds.
C) 30 seconds to 2 minutes.
D) up to 5 minutes.

C) 30 seconds to 2 minutes

Neil is a football player. We can tell whether he is getting enough kcalories by all the following except
A) determining his body fat level.
B) seeing if his body fat is about 5 percent to 18 percent.
C) monitoring weight changes on a weekly basis.
D) weighing him before and after football practice.

D) weighing him before and after football practice.

If an athlete's body fat level is too high, what is the best weight loss approach?
A) Follow an 800 kcalorie eating plan.
B) Wear a rubber suit to sweat off extra weight.
C) Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day.
D) Restrict dietary carbohydrates.

C) Eat about 200 to 500 kcalories less per day.

Athletes who consume adequate carbohydrate promote all of the following except
A) reducing the risk of chronic fatigue.
B) loading the liver with adequate glycogen stores.
C) increases in body fat levels.
D) loading the muscles with adequate glycogen stores.

C) increases in body fat levels.

Carbohydrate loading
A) involves loading up on carbohydrate-laden foods the day before an endurance event.
B) involves little exercise and a high-carbohydrate diet the first 3 days, followed by heavy exercise and a low-carbohydrate diet right before competition.
C) involves a tapering in the intensity of workouts with a corresponding increase in the percentage of carbohydrate intake.
D) does not increase glycogen stores to any significant degree.

C) involves a tapering in the intensity of workouts with a corresponding increase in the percentage of carbohydrate intake.

A 120-pound woman is attempting to be a bodybuilder so she would like to gain large quantities of muscle mass. Her daily protein intake should be how many grams?
A) 32 to 59
B) 65 to 87
C) 82 to 93
D) 44 to 81

C) 82 to 93

Which of the following is true about the protein intake for athletes?
A) Most athletes must take protein supplements to get enough protein.
B) Bodybuilders need more protein than endurance athletes.
C) Amino acid supplements are a better way to deliver amino acids because they do not need to be digested.
D) Most athletes eating a variety of foods will easily meet their protein needs.

D) Most athletes eating a variety of foods will easily meet their protein needs.

If a woman athlete is not menstruating regularly, she should do all the following except
A) exercise more intensely.
B) increase her kcalorie intake.
C) get adequate calcium in the diet.
D) have her body fat percentage checked.

A) exercise more intensely.

A pre-event meal should
A) be eaten 1 hour before the event.
B) contain at least 600 kcalories.
C) be low in fat and fiber, high in carbohydrate and moderate in protein.
D) be high in fat to prevent hunger.

C) be low in fat and fiber, high in carbohydrate and moderate in protein.

The best way to determine how much fluid must be replaced as a result of a workout is to
A) weigh before and after the workout.
B) rely on thirst.
C) drink various amounts of fluid during the workout and see how much makes you feel best.
D) estimate how much you sweated.

A) weigh before and after the workout.

For every pound lost during a workout, cup(s) of water should be consumed during or after exercise.
A) 1/2
B) 1
C) 1.75
D) 3

D) 3

Which of the following does not have an ergogenic effect according to your text?
A) Growth hormone
B) Carnitine
C) Anabolic steroids
D) Blood doping

B) Carnitine

Anabolic steroid use may cause all of the following side effects except
A) stunting growth in teenage athletes.
B) cardiovascular disease.
C) body fat loss.
D) "roid rage" (extreme mood swings).

C) body fat loss.

A regular physical activity program should include all the following except
A) a warmup.
B) a frequency of 2 times per week.
C) a heart rate of 60 percent to 70 percent of maximum.
D) at least 20 to 30 minutes duration.

B) a frequency of 2 times per week.

The use of sports drinks is critical for activities lasting
A) 5 to 60 seconds.
B) 1 to 5 minutes.
C) 30 minutes.
D) 60 to 90 minutes.

D) 60 to 90 minutes.

The main energy currency for cells

ATP

A pituitary hormone that produces body growth and fat release from storage, among other effects

Growth hormone

High energy compound that is initially used by cells as a source of phosphate, when it needs to rapidly synthesis ATP

Phosphocreatine

A fracture that occurs from repeated jarring of a bone

Stress fracture

A three-carbon compound formed during glucose metabolism: also called pyruvate

Pyruvic acid

man-made substances related to male sex hormones.

Anabolic steroids

Work-producing. A mechanical, nutritional, psychological, pharmacological, or physiological substance or treatment that is intended to improve performance

Ergogenic

Heat illness that occurs when heat stress causes depletion of blood volume from fluid loss by the body

Heat exhaustion

Condition that occurs when internal body temperature reaches 104?F; skin is hot and dry

Heatstroke

A technique by which red blood cells, in a blood sample, are concentrated by removing fluid, and later are injected into an athlete

Blood doping

A three-carbon acid formed during anaerobic cell metabolism

Lactic acid

Condition usually occurring in people who have experienced large sweat losses from exercising for several hours in a hot climate and who have consumed a large volume of unsalted water

Heat cramps

Activities that consist of energy expenditure bursts followed by a rest period; intense short-term exertion

Anaerobic training

A breakdown product of adenosine triphosphate that contains two phosphates

ADP

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