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These are literally copied and pasted right from the class power point.

Purpose of female reproductive system

Reproduction
Secretes hormones that support secondary sex characteristic changes page 744 ...
Secretes hormones that sustain pregnancy should fertilization occur.

Vaginal orifice

Located in lower portion of the vestibule
Also known as the vaginal introitus

introitus

an opening

Perineum

Area between vaginal orifice and anus.
Consists of muscular and fibrous tissue and serves as support for pelvic structures

Vagina

Muscular tube that connects the uterus with the vulva

Vulva

The external genitalia

Uterus

Pear-shaped, hollow, muscular organ that houses the fertilized implanted ovum as it develops throughout pregnancy.
Source of monthly menstrual flow if pregnancy does not occur.

Uterus Three identifiable portions

Fundus-Small dome-shaped upper portion.
Body-Central portion.
Cervix-Narrower, neck-like portion at lower end.

Wall of uterus contains three layers

Perimetrium-Outermost serous membrane layer.
Myometrium-Middle, muscular layer.
Endometrium-Innermost layer, highly vascular.

Fallopian tubes

Also known as uterine tubes or oviducts. Serve as passageway for the ova as they exit the ovary en route to the uterus. Free end of each tube ends in finger-like projections called fimbriae.

Fimbriated

ends of the fallopian tubes that draw ovum into tube through wavelike motions when ovum is released from ovary.

Ovaries

Known as the female sex cells and as the female gonads. Almond-shaped pair of ovaries, held in place by ligaments.

sex organ

an organ that produces sperm or eggs : a testicle or an ovary.

Ovaries are responsible for

Producing mature ova and releasing them at monthly intervals. Producing hormones necessary for normal growth and development of female. Producing hormones necessary for maintaining pregnancy should it occur.

Mammary glands

Known as the breasts. Responsible for production of milk (lactation). Consist of glandular tissue with supporting adipose tissue and fibrous connective tissue, covered with skin.

Structures of the breasts

Nipple
Areola ~Darker pigmented area surrounding the nipple.

Tissues of the breasts

Adipose which is a connective tissue. Glandular; all women have same # of glandular lobes that produce milk during lactation (15 to 20)

Lactiferous ducts

Narrow tubular structures of the breast that transport milk to the nipple for breastfeeding

Puberty

Period of life at which the ability to reproduce begins. Female reproductive organs are fully developed. Secondary sex characteristic changes occur.

Menstrual cycle

Menstrual phase-Days 1 to 5. Menstrual flow occurs on day 1 and lasts for 3 to 5 days
Postmenstrual phase- Days 6 to 12. Interval between menses and ovulation
Ovulatory phase- Days 13 to 14. Graafian follicle ruptures, releasing mature ovum into pelvic cavity = ovulation.
Premenstrual phase-Days 15 to 28. Phase between ovulatory phase and onset of menstrual flow

Amenorrhea

Absence of menstrual flow
possible sign or symptom of pregnancy.

Dysmenorrhea

Painful menstrual flow

Menorrhagia

Abnormally long or very heavy menstrual period.

Metrorrhagia

Uterine bleeding at times other than the menstrual period.

Oligomenorrhea

Abnormally light or infrequent menstruation

Tubal ligation

is surgery to close a woman's fallopian tubes. These tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. A woman who has this surgery can no longer get pregnant. This means she is "sterile."

Permanent methods of birth control

Vasectomy-Male sterilization. Surgically cutting and tying the vas deferens to prevent passage of sperm.

Carcinoma of the Breast

A malignant tumor of breast tissue. The most common type originates in the mammary ducts. Tumor has ability to invade surrounding tissue if not detected early enough. Factors that put some women at higher risk; Family history, nulliparity, early menarche, late menopause, hyptertension, obesity, diabetes, chronic cystic breast disease, age after 60

Cervical Carcinoma

Malignant tumor of the cervix. Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the female reproductive tract. Appears to be most frequent in women aged 30 -50 Symptoms include bleeding between menstrual periods, after sexual intercourse, after menopause, and an abnormal Pap smear.

Cystocele

Herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina. Result, usually, of weakening of the anterior wall of vagina, often after the woman has given birth to several babies.

Endometrial Carcinoma

Malignant tumor of the inner lining of the uterus. Also known as adenocarcinoma of the uterus.The endometrium is the highly vascular layer that builds up each month in anticipation of receiving a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, this inner layer is shed through a bloody discharge known as menstruation.

Endometriosis

Presence and growth of endometrial tissue in areas outside the endometrium (lining of the uterus). Generally found in abdominal cavity. The ectopic (out of place) endometrial tissue may also be found in the wall or surface of uterus, in the peritoneum of the pelvis, on a small intestine, and in or on the fallopian tubes and ovaries.

Fibrocystic Breast Disease

Presence of single or multiple fluid-filled cysts that are palpable in the breasts. Cysts are benign and fluctuate in size with the menstrual period. Often, the woman will not experience any symptoms but will seek medical attention after she discovers a lump. Treat; good bra to lessen any pain, reduce caffeine, mild analgesics

Fibroid Tumor

A benign, fibrous tumor of the uterus
One of the most common types of benign tumors of the female reproductive system
Vary in size and number and location within the uterus.Occurring only in premenopausal women. Treatment ranges from surgery to remove tumors to a hysterectomy, depending on severity of symptoms.

Leiomyoma

Benign, smooth muscle tumor of the uterus
Uterine leiomyomas are often mislabeled as fibrous tumors. Both are most common types of benign tumors in female reproductive system.Both present same type of symptoms and treated in the same manner.

Ovarian Carcinoma

Malignant tumor of the ovaries, most commonly occurring in women in their 50s. Rarely detected in early stage. Usually far advanced when it is diagnosed, as symptoms usually do not appear until the disease is well advanced. Treat: surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy

Ovarian Cysts

Benign, sacs (cysts) that form on or near the ovaries. May be fluid filled or may contain semisolid materials. A pelvic examination will usually detect an ovarian cyst. Most will disappear by themselves. May be removed surgically for biopsy.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Infection of the fallopian tubes. Also known as salpingitis (sal-pin-jye-tis). PID occurs predominantly in women under age of 35 who are sexually active. PID begins with a cervical infection that spreads by surface invasion along the uterine lining and then out to the fallopian tubes and ovaries. PID is a major cause of infertility in women.

Breast self-examination

Procedure in which the woman examines her breasts and surrounding tissue for evidence of any changes that could indicate the possibility of malignancy.

Colposcopy

Visual examination of the vagina and cervix with a colposcope. Lighted binocular microscope used for direct examination of the surfaces of the vagina and cervix.

Cone biopsy

Surgical removal of a cone-shaped segment of the cervix for diagnosis or treatment. Also known as conization.

Cryosurgery

Destruction of tissue by rapid freezing with substances such as liquid nitrogen.

Culdocentesis

Surgical puncture through the posterior wall of the vagina into the cul-de-sac to withdraw intraperitoneal fluid for examination. Checking for evidence of inflammation, purulent drainage, bleeding, ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, or ovarian malignancy.

Dilation and curettage

Dilation or widening of the cervical canal with a dilator, followed by scraping of the uterine lining with a curet. Also termed D&C

Laparoscopy

Process of viewing the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope.

Mammography

Process of examining with X-ray the soft tissue of the breast to detect various benign and/or malignant growths before they can be felt.

Papanicolaou smear

Microscopic examination of cells scraped from within the cervix, from around the cervix, and from the posterior part of the vagina to test for cervical cancer. Also called Pap test

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