Parts and Functions of the Human Body Systems

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Dermis

The INNER, thicker layer of skin that houses SWEAT GLANDS, OIL GLANDS, HAIR FOLLICLES, NERVE CELLS, BLOOD VESSELS, and FAT CELLS

Epidermis

The OUTER, thiner layer of skin that is made out of EPITHELIAL TISSUE, and living MELANIN CELLS, and houses PORES, and HAIR

Keratin

is a protein that makes the skin waterproof

Parts of bones

COMPACT BONE TISSUE, SPONGY BONE TISSUE, RED BONE MARROW, and CARTILAGE are all...

Functions of bones

Bones maintain and change the position of body parts with the help of skeletal muscles, bones protect vital organs, bones provide body with support, some bones produce blood cells, and also bones store minerals. These are all...

Ligaments

Srong bands of connective tissue that hold the cartilage that cushions bones in a joint.

Tendons

Tough bands of connective tissue with skeletal muscels that are connected to bones

Joints

The places in the skeleton where two or more bones meet

Strains

An injury when a muscle is overstreched

Alveoli

Are millions of tiny airsacks that branch off of the bronchi (these are located in both lungs)

Trachea

A windpipe at the bottom of the LARYNX

Valves

Flaps of tissue that keep blood the blood from flowing in the wrong direction

Respiration

The process of breathing that includes providing blood cells with oxygen

Urinary Bladder

Is a sack that holds a substance called urine (waste) before it is passed to the URETHRA

Urethra

A tube that carries urine (waste) out of the body

Pituitary Gland

A gland that rests in the brain that promotes growth, and other bodily functions

Pancreas

A bodily structure that supplies the digestive system with digestion chemicals

Skeletal muscle

A type of muscle tissue that is attached to and moves the skeleton, an voluntary muscle

Smooth muscle

is the type of muscle tissue found in the walls of many organs and blood vessels in the body, an involuntary muscle

Cardiac muscle

The type of muscle that is only found in the heart, an involuntary muscle

Involuntary VS. Voluntary

Involuntary: Type of muscle that you don't have to think about to move, these muscles run all the important jobs inside the body such as breathing and digesting

Voluntary: Musles that can be moved consciously such as arms and legs

Energy molecule

a cell that stores/moves energy throughout the body

Large Intestine

a wider but shorter tube in the digestive system that is used to hold materials that were not digested

Small Intestine

a very long, coiled, ring of muscle at the end of the stomach that controls the flow of food

Stomach

a j-shaped sack that stores food and further digests food, it takes about 6 seconds for food to reach it

White blood cells

Cells that help fight off infection and disease

Red blood cells

Cells that carry oxygen, people tend to have 20-25 trillion of them on average and about 300 every second

Platelets

Help blood clot to damaged blood vessels to help seal damages in the blood vessel

Artery

Is a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. These blood vessels have thick muscular walls.

Blood vessel

tubes that blood travels through the body in

Capillaries

They are the smallest vessels. These vessells are so small that the blood cells move through them in single file

Veins

These blood vessels come from capillaries. These blood vessels carry blood back to the heart. These blood vessells have much thinner walls than arteries.

2 main organs in the lymphatic system

1. Spleen - this organ gets rid of red blood cells and other foreign matter. It also makes white blood cells that defend the body.
2. Thymus - this gland is the center of immune control. It makes hormones that help white blood cells recognize invaders.

4 kinds of germs

Virus, bacteria, protozoan and fungi

Germs

What are antibiotics used to kill?

Inhale vs. exhale

Inhale has a relaxed diaphragm while an exhale has a contracted diaphragm

1%

What % is urine in the urinary system?

Kidneys

This is where your urinary system starts

Functions of the Nervous Systems

1. Detects changes in the internal and external environments of the body. 2. Controls and coordinates responses to changes in the body. 3. Integrates the functions and activities of all organ systems.

Central vs peripheral nervous systems

Central Nervous system consist of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory and motor neurons.

Somatic vs autonomic nervous systems

Somatic consists of the spinal and cranial nerves connected to skeletal muscles and skin receptors. These enable us to feel changes we can control. Autonomic consists of cranial nerves connected to non skeletal muscles and glands. These nerves control functions that control breathing, heart beat and organ functions: things we can not control.

Testes

Primary organ of the male reproductive system.

Ovaries

Primary organ of the female reproductive system.

Sperm

Reproductive cells of a male

Eggs

Reproductive cells of a female

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