PHC Unofficial AP English Lang. & Comp. Vocab Guide (Week 5)

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Week 5 vocab words of the Unofficial AP English Language and Composition Vocabulary Guide

clause

a section, phrase, or passage; in grammar, a group of words not necessarily a sentence (as in "main clause," that contains a subject and predicate, and "coordinate clause," which is two or more clauses of equal status); an article in a legal document

ellipsis/ellipses

A punctuation mark of a series of three dots representing the omission of often extra or non-essential information in text (...)

inconsequential

unimportant (insignificant, minor, trivial, petty, small, negligible); irrelevant (not pertinent)

quotation marks

the punctuation marks placed around words that are quoted from another individual, either spoken or written, to show verbatim (precise, word-for-word) use ("xxx")

Oxford comma

Using commas in a series of items, the Oxford comma is the last comma in the series, placed before the conjunction (and, or); the comma is also called the "Harvard comma" or "serial comma."

period

for a direct statement, he punctuation mark used at the end of a complete sentence to mark the end of the sentence (.)

exclamation

a loud, abrupt outcry or protest that can be made in excitement, anger, or joy (shout, cry, yell, scream, shriek); In rhetoric, an exclamatory phrase is a word or group of words with an exclamation point following

question

inquiry, query

semicolon

a punctuation mark that divides a sentence, where two complete sentences that are directly related reside on either side of the mark; the tempo of the mark is that of more pause than a dash but less pause than a period.

colon

a punctuation mark that is used to show a forthcoming list or explanatory bit of information that elaborates, summarizes or describes what preceded

dash

a punctuation mark that throws or thrusts the reader forward [noun]; to strike, smash, or break to pieces [verb], physically or figuratively; to hurry, rush, or hasten [verb]

em dash

In printing, literally, a dash that is one "em" long; a punctuation mark that is like, but longer than, a dash and connects to the letters previous and following, for the purpose of showing a break in thought or tone shift, or to replace colons or parentheses; most keyboards do not have an em dash and, therefore, you must type two dashes (--); in Microsoft Word, you create an em dash by the following: 1) type the original word, 2) without a space afterward, directly type two hyphens, or short dashes, 3) without a space again, type the next word, 4) hit the space bar, and the em dash appears (the two short dashes change into the one longer, connected dash); note: em dashes will appear differently in different fonts (some touch the letters and some almost touch the letters) Example: And then—I have to tell you—the door opened up!

en dash

In printing, literally, a dash the length of one "en"; a punctuation mark that is bigger than a hyphen but shorter than an em dash; there are two uses of the en-dash: 1) to show numerical ranges of "up to and including, as in "pages 34—43," and 2) with the compound adjective hyphen, where two words are used in the connection as in "pre—Civil War"

hyphen/hyphenate

a single-dash punctuation mark used to separate some compound words (-), found on most keyboards; we hyphenate; a temporary compound, or compound word created for a specific purpose, uses a hyphen if the adjective precedes the word modified (Example: The group took a much-needed break.); it is recommended that, if a writer is uncertain as to whether or not to use a hyphen, he or she should always use a dictionary or style guide to confirm the proper usage

brackets

also called a "square bracket"; a punctuation mark used to enclose an interpolation, change, or added material that defines or clarifies ([ ]); example: "[T]he ship"; a group or classification; a support

slash

to cut, slit, or make a gash [verb]; to critically attack someone verbally [verb]; a stroke [noun]; a wound [noun]; in punctuation, a stroke between two words indicating that either word may be used—whatever is appropriate (Examples: either/or; man/woman)—or a mark separating (example: 3/4/2010)

competing punctuation

The phenomenon of competing punctuation is when, at the end of a sentence or with quotation marks, we do not repeat punctuation or place two punctuation marks together. Example 1: Who posed the question, "Will you be there tomorrow?"—The example appears to need another question mark (technically) at the end of the sentence. However, the example is considered a case of competing punctuation, and the second question mark is left off. Example 2: The woman asked, "Who will come with me?"—The example appears to need a period after the quotation mark (technically) at the end of the sentenced. However, the example is considered a case of competing punctuation, and the period is left off.

Percent/percentage

A proportion, or fraction amount, from 100, notated with a punctuation mark (%) that can be used in writing; in formal writing, we spell the percentage out (example: Fifteen percent of the students owned a web domain.)

Gregorian calendar

A solar calendar used throughout the world put in place in 1582 by Pope Gregory VIII that corrected the errors of the Julian calendar, which assumed 365.25 days between vernal equinoxes (about 11 minutes "off"); at the time of the "fix" of the Gregorian calendar, the calendar had shifted approximately 10 days earlier than the actual equinox; the calendar also changed the organization of leap years.

anno Domini

also written "AD"; an abbreviation used in writing calendar dates, representing the number of years following the birth of Jesus Christ. Note: The letters "AD" are placed before the date.

abbreviation

the shortened form of a word or phrase. Examples: Dr. for doctor; etc. for etcetera; tsp. for teaspoon

before Christ

also written "BC"; an abbreviation used in writing calendar dates, representing the
number of years previous to the birth of Jesus Christ. Note: The letters "BC" are placed after the date.

interpolation

in writing, inserted text that alters the original text; in mathematics, methods of constructing data points; in science and engineering, curve fitting in data points

braces

a punctuation mark used to enclose or connect words or lines to be considered together ({ }); used only in text with heavily nested comments, in this order: {[(...)]} [noun]; a pair of game birds [noun]; an orthopedic or dental appliance [noun]; to plant firmly [verb]

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