Chapter 1 Review

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Biosphere

All environments on Earth that support life; sum of all of Earth's ecosystems

Ecosystem

All the organisms living in a particular area along with the nonliving factors they interact with (water, air, sunlight); biological community and its physical environment

Community

Entire array of organisms inhabiting an ecosystem

Population

Interacting group of individuals

Organism

Individual living thing (bacterium, fungus, protist, plant, or animal)

Organ system

Organs that work together to perform particular functions (nervous system, digestive system)

Organ

Structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions (brain, spinal cord, nerves)

Tissue

Group of similar cells with a specific function

Cell

Unit of living matter, separated from its environment by a membrane (lowest level that can perform activities required for life)

Organelle

Structure that performs a specific function in a cell

Molecule

Cluster of atoms held together by chemical bonds (DNA)

Atom

Smallest particle of ordinary matter

Producer

Organisms that produce their own food

Consumer

An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms

Decomposer

Organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter

Emergent properties

New properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases

System

More complex organization formed from a combination of components (cells)

Prokaryotic cell

Cell lacking a nucleus, membrane, and most other organelles; found only in Bacteria and Archaea domains

Eukaryotic cell

Cell with a nucleus, membrane and other internal organelles; all organisms except Bacteria and Archaea domains composed of eukaryotic cells

At least _____ of North America's rain forests have been heavily logged.

85%

Experimentation is only one part of the scientific process, but it is a very important step because it _____.

allows rejection of some alternative hypotheses

Energy is incorporated into most ecosystems by _____.

plants

Lifeʼs levels of organization define the scope of biology

Biosphere, Ecosystem, Community, Population, Organism ----> Organ system ---> Organ ---> Tissue ----> Cell ---> Molecular

Scientists use two main approaches to learn about nature

discovery driven and hypothesis driven

Discovery driven

causes for natural phenomena

Hypothesis driven

observations that stimulate inquiry and explanation

Scientific method

posing and testing hypotheses

Experimental design

Variables ---> IV/DV, Control

Chi-Squared

determines whether an association (or relationship between 2 categorical variables in a sample is likely to reflect a real association between these 2 variables in the population

Null Hypothesis

hypothesis of no difference, H0

Significance Level

a pre-calculated probability (chance of being wrong)

p Value

an indication of significance level

Alternative Hypothesis

H1

Degrees of Freedom =

n-1

n =

number of possible outcomes

Three domains of life

archaea, bacteria, eukarya

Archaea

extreme prokaryotes

Bacteria

true prokaryotes

Eukarya

eukaryotes

Unity in diversity

All forms of life have common features/DNA or RNA

8 Characteristics of Life

Order, regulation, Growth and development,energy utilization, Response to environment, Reproduction, Evolution

Evolution

the process of change that happens over generations that transforms life

Theory

comprehensive explanations ex. Evolution

Adaptations

features that evolved by means of natural selection

Living organisms and their environments form interconnecting webs

Energy flow in ecosystems, Carbon cycling, Nitrogen cycle

Biological connections in our lives

Technology (bioengineering), Global warming, Ozone depletion, Stem Cell research

control

"normal"

variable

a factor differing between groups

induction

a bunch of facts come to one idea

deduction

tasks ideas and see where they apply

hypothesis

tentative explanation to some question - an explanation on trial

quantitative

expressible as a quantity or relating to or susceptible of measurement

qualitative

involving distinctions based on qualities

histogram

A graph of vertical bars representing the frequency distribution of a set of data.

line graph

A graph that uses line segments to show changes that occur over time

What did Darwin noitce?

He realized that numerous small changes in populations caused by natural selection lead to major alterations of species

two things an ecosystem must accomplish:

-recycle chemicals necessary for life
-move energy through the ecosystem (energy enters as light and exits as heat)

homeostasis

body regulates temperature

energy

-used for work
-heat
-light

system

combinations of structures (components) that provide organization

two groups of cells:

-prokaryotic cells (no nucleus)
-eukaryotic cells

Bacteria vs. Archeabacteria

distinguished by DNA

three domains of life:

-bacteria
-archaea
-eukarya

protists

combo of fungi, plants, and animals

Kingdoms of Eukarya

-protists
-fungi
-plantae
-animalia

_____ produce much of the food that supports the ecosystem

plants

_____ comes into an ecosystem in the form of sunlight

energy

Chemical ______ cycle within the ecosystem's web

nutrients

decomposers _____ chemical nutrients

recycle

plants and certain prokaryotes and protists trap energy in the process of ______

photosynthesis

____ eat plants or other animals

animals

____ such as prokaryotes and fungi convert dead matter to usable nutrients

decomposers

plants absorb mineral nutrients from the ____

soil

Species

Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring

Taxonomy

Branch of biology that identifies, names, and classifies species

Kingdom

The broad taxonomic category above phylum or division; a taxonomic scheme that divided all diversity

Domain

Taxonomic category above the kingdom level; three domains of life are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya

Bacteria

One of two prokaryotic domains of life

Archaea

One of two prokaryotic domains of life

Prokaryote

Organism with prokaryotic cells

Eukaryote

Organism with eukaryotic cells

Eukarya

Domain of eukaryotes, organisms made of eukaryotic cells; includes protists, plants, fungi, and animals

Theories

Widely accepted explanatory idea that is broad in scope and supported by a large body of evidence

Natural selection

process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully (survival of the fittest)

Evolutionary adaptation

An inherited characteristic that enhances an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment

Hypothesis

Tentative explanation a scientist proposes for a specific phenomenon that has been observed

Controlled experiment

An experiment with at least two tests, a control group (used for comparison) and a test of the effect of a single variable while keeping all other factors the same

Technology

Practical application of scientific knowledge

At which point is an investigator most likely to use deductive reasoning?

In establishing a test of a hypothesis

A pesticide kills 99.9% of a pest population. What will be the result of the continued application of this pesticide?

Through time, the pesticide will become less effective at killing the pest

Natural selection tends to act at which of the following levels?

Population

What is the appropriate term for an interacting group of individuals of a single type?

Population

Natural selection requires ________.

Both heritable variation and differential reproductive success

Discovery science is based on _______.

Inductive reasoning

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