ABA Chapter 13

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adjunctive behaviors

behavior that occurs as a collateral effect of a schedule of periodic reinforcement for other behavior; time-filling or interim activities (i.e. doodling, idle talking, smoking) that are induced by schedules of reinforcement during times when reinforcement is unlikely to be delivered.

alternative schedule (alt)

a schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement whenever the requirement of EITHER a ratio schedule OR an interval schedule - the basic schedules that comprise it - is met, regardless of which of the component schedule's requirements is met first.

chained schedule of reinforcement (chain)

similar to a multiple schedule in that it has two or more basic schedule requirements that occur successively, and have discriminative stimulus correlated with each independent schedule. Differs from a multiple schedule in three ways (a) basic schedules always occur in a specific order, (b) behavior may be the same for all elements of the chain (c) conditioned reinforcement for responding in the first element in a chain is the presentation of the second element.

compound schedule of reinforcement

a schedule of reinforcement consisting of two or more elements of continuous reinforcement (CRF), the four intermittent schedules of reinforcement (FR, VR, FI, VI), differential reinforcement of various rates of responding (DRH, DRL), and extinction.

concurrent schedule (conc)

a schedule of reinforcement that occurs when (a) two or more contingencies of reinforcement (b) operate independently and simultaneously (c) for two or more behaviors.

conjunctive schedule (conj)

a schedule of reinforcement that provides reinforcement following the completion of response requirements for BOTH a ratio schedule and an interval schedule of reinforcement;

the first response following the conclusion of the time interval produces reinforcement if the criterion number of responses has been completed.

continuous reinforcement (CRF)

provides reinforcement for each occurrence of behavior.

differential reinforcement of diminishing rates (DRD)

a schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is provided at the end of a predetermined time interval when the number of responses is less than a criterion that is gradually decreased across time intervals based on the individual's performance.

differential reinforcement of high rates (DRH)

a schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is provided at the end of a predetermined interval contingent on the number of responses emitted during the interval being greater than a gradually increasing criterion based on the individual's performance in previous intervals.

differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL)

a schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement (a) follows each occurrence of the target behavior that is separated from the previous response by a minimum interresponse time (IRT), or (b) is contingent on the number of responses within a period of time not exceeding a predetermined criterion.

fixed interval (FI)

this schedule of reinforcement provides reinforcement for the first response following a fixed duration of time.

fixed ratio (FR)

this schedule of reinforcement requires the completion of a number of responses to produce a reinforcer.

intermittent schedule of reinforcement (INT)

a contingency of reinforcement in which some, but not all, occurrences of the behavior produce reinforcement.

limited hold

may be added to an interval schedule, causing reinforcement to remain available for a finite time following the elapse of the FI or VI interval;

The participant will miss the opportunity to receive reinforcement if a targeted response does not occur within the time limit.

matching law

the allocation of responses to choices available on concurrent schedules of reinforcement; rates of responding across choices are distributed in proportions that match the rates of reinforcement received from each choice alternative.

mixed schedule (mix)

uses a procedure identical to the multiple schedules, except the mixed schedules has no discriminative stimuli correlated with the independent schedules.

multiple schedule (mult)

presents two or more basic schedules of reinforcement in an alternating, usually random, sequence.

postreinforcement pause

following a reinforcement the participant does not respond for a period of time;

the absence of responding for a period of time following reinforcement; an effect commonly produced by FI and FR schedules of reinforcement.

progressive schedule of reinforcement

a schedule that systematically thins each successive reinforcement opportunity independent of the individual's behavior.

ratio strain

can result from abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving from denser to thinner reinforcement schedules.

schedule of reinforcement

a rule specifying the environmental arrangements and response requirements for reinforcement; a description of contingency of reinforcement.

schedule thinning

changing a contingency of reinforcement by gradually increasing the response ratio or the extent of the time interval; it results in a lower rate of reinforcement per responses, time, or both.

tandem schedule (tand)

uses a procedure identical to the chained schedule, except, like the mix schedule, the tandem schedule does not use discriminative stimuli.

variable interval (VI)

this schedule of reinforcement provides reinforcement for the first correct response following the elapse of variable durations of time.

variable ratio (VR)

this schedule of reinforcement requires the completion of a variable number of responses to produce a reinforcer.

extinction

the discontinuing of a reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior; the primary effect is a decrease in the frequency of the behavior until it reaches a prereinforced level or ultimately ceases to occur.

No occurrence of the behavior produces reinforcement.

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