uses previous knowledge to gather and interpret the stimuli registered by the senses.
object recognition/pattern recognition
you identify a complex arrangement of sensory stimulit, and your perceive that this pattern is separae from its background.
is the actual object that is "out there" in the evnvironment-for example the cell phone on your desk
is the information registered on your sensory receptors--for example, the image that your cell phone creates on your retina
lines the inside back portion of your eye; it contains millions of different kinds of neurons that register and transmit visual information from the outside world.
is a large-capacity storage system that records information from each of the senses with reasonable accuracy.
or visual sensory memory, preserves an image of a visual stimulus for a brief period after the stimulus has disappeared.
primary visual cortex
is located in the occipital lobe of the brain; it is the portion of your cerebral cortex that is concrned with basic processing of visual stimuli
is that humans have basic tendencies to organize what they see; without any effort, we see patterns, rather than random arrangements.
has a distinct shape with clearly defined edges
the region that is left over
ambiguous figure-ground relationship
the figure and the ground reverse from time to time
illusory contours/subjective contours
we see edges even though they are not physically present in the stimulus
you compare a stimulus with a set of templates, or specific patterns that you have stored in memory
specific patterns that you have stored in memory
propose a more flexible approach, in which a visual stimulus is composed of a small number of characteristics or components
Each characteristic (For example for the letter R would include a curved component, a vertical line, and a diagonal line)
recognition-by-components theory/structural theory
is that a specific view of an object can be represented as an arrangement of simple 3-D shapes called geons.
Just as the letters of the alphabet can be combined into words, geons can be combined to form meaningful objects. (Shapes forming objects)
this approach proposes that we store a small number of views of three-dimensional objects, rather than just one view
emphasizes the importance of the stimulus in object recognition. Specifically, the phsical stimuli from the environment are registered on the sensory receptors.
emphasizes how a person's concepts and higher-level mental processes influence object recognition. Specifically, our concepts, expectations, and memory help in identifying objects.
word superiority effect
we can identify a single letter more accurately and more rapidly when it appears in a meaningful word than when it appears alone by itself or else in a meaningless string of unrelated letters.
we fail to detect a change in an object of a scene
when we are paying attention to some events in a scene, we may fail to notice when an unexpected but completely visible object suddenly appears.
if the conditions in which the research is conducted are similar to the natural setting where the results will be applied
recognize in terms of overall shape and structure (for example faces)
overall quality that transcends its individual elements
refers to the destruction of tissue, most often by strokes, tumors, or accidents
is a condition in which people cannot recognize human faces visually, thought they perceive other objects relatively normally
a technique for obtaining images of human brain activity
one of the most serious psychological disorders. People with this disorder typically do not show intense emotions, and they may have hallucinations also disordered thinking. Less likely to use top-down processing in visual perception. have trouble identifying people's faces, as well as their facial expressions
cells here play an important role in perceiving faces
your auditory system must record the sound vibrations generated by someone talking; then the system must translate these vibrations into a sequence of sounds that you perceive to be speech
is the basic unit of spoken language, such as the sounds a, k and th. The English language uses about forty-five, a number that includes both vowels and consonants
Important characteristics of speech perception
(1)Listeners can impose boundaries between words, even when these words are not separated by silence (2) Phoneme pronunciation varies tremendously (3) Context allows listeners to fill in missing sounds (4) Visual cues from the speaker's mouth help us interpret ambiguous sounds
when you are pronouncing a particular phoneme, our mouth remains somewhat the same shape as it was in pronouncing the previous phoneme; futhermore, your mouth is also preparing to pronounce the next phoneme---all at the same time
People can fill in a missing phoneme, using contextual meaning as a cue, so without much effort, people can reconstruct a missing sound
refers to the influence of visual information on speech perception, when individuals must integrate both visual and auditory information
special mechanism approach/speech-is-special approach
according to this approach, humans are born with a specialized device that allows us to decode speech stimuli. As a result, we process speech sounds more quickly and accurately than other auditory stimuli, such as instrumental music
phonetic module/speech module
a special-purpose neural mechanism that specifically handles all aspects of speech perception; it cannot handle other kinds of auditory perception according to the supporters of the special mechanism approach/speech-is-special approach
People hear a clear-cut sound (Example people listening to a sound halfway between a b and a p, hear either a clear -cut b or a clear-cut p)
general mechanism approaches
argue that we can explain speech perception without proposing any special phonetic module. People who favor these approaches believe that humans use the same neural mechanisms to process both speech sounds and a non speech sounds.