BIO - Chapter 26 - Tree of Life

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Fundamental Properties of Life

* Cellular organization
* Sensitivity
* Growth
* Development
* Reproduction
* Regulation
* Homeostasis
* Heredity

Paleozoic Era

* Cambrian
* Ordovician
* Sillurian
* Devonian
* Carboniferous
* Permian

Mesozoic Era

* Triassic
* Jurassic
* Cretaceous

Cenozoic Era

* Tertiary
* Quaternary

Cambrian - Ordovician Period

* 500-450 MYA
* Increase in diversity
* First land plants
* Invertebrates dominate

Sillurian - Early Devonian Period

* 450-400 MYA
* Early vascular plant diversity
* Bony fish, tetrapods, seed plants, and insects appear

Devonian Period

* 400-350 MYA
* First amphibians

Carboniferous Period

* 350-300 MYA
* First reptiles

Permian Period

* 300-250 MYA

Triassic Period

* 250-200 MYA
* First gymnosperms

Jurassic Period

* 200-150 MYA
* First dinosaurs

Cretaceous Period

* 150-50 MYA
* First flowering plants, birds, marsupial mammals
* Diversification of flowering plants
* Pollinating insects
* Mammal radiation
* Bird radiation

Tertiarty/Quaternary Period

* 50 MYA-Present
* First Primate
* Appearance of humans

Linnaean Hierarchy

* Kingdom
* Phylum
* Class
* Order
* Family
* Genus
* Species

Domains

* Archaea
* Bacteria
* Eukarya

Kingdoms

* Animalia
* Plantae
* Viridiplantae (not Linnaean)
* Fungi
* Protista
* Archaea (Prokaryotes)
* Bacteria (Prokaryotes)

Archaean Characteristics

* Cell walls lack peptidoglycan (present in bacteria)
* Lipids in cell membranes have a different structure from those in all other organisms
* Distinctive rRNA sequences

Archaean Categories

* Methanogens
* Extremophiles
* Nonextreme Archae

Methanogens

* Obtain their energy by using H2 (g) to reduce CO2 to CH4 (g)
* Are anaerobes that are poisoned by the slightest traces of O2
* Live in swamps, marshes, and intestines of mammals releasing CH4 (g)

Extremophiles

* Able to grow under conditions that seem extreme to us
* Thermophiles - live in extreme hot
* Cold-adapted - live in extreme cold
* Halophiles - live in very salty environments
* pH-tolerant - live in highly acidic or highly basic environments
* Pressure-tolerant - live in the depths of the ocean at a minimum of twice the depth humans can survive (300m)

Bacteria

* More numerous than any other organism
* Play critical roles throughout the biospheres, such as extracting N2 from the air
* Highly diverse and blurred evolutionary links between species
* 12-15 major groups of bacteria
* Only living organisms with peptidoglycan in their cell walls

Eukaryotes

* First eukaryotes were unicellular
* Probably evolved through endosymbiosis
* Compartmentalized
* Multicellular
* Sexual reproduction

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